The use of novel foods enriched with long-chain n-3 fatty acids to increase dietary intake: A comparison of methodologies assessing nutrient intake

Craig S. Patch, Linda C. Tapsell, Trevor A. Mori, Barbara J. Meyer, Karen J. Murphy, Jackie Mansour, Manny Noakes, Peter M. Clifton, Ian B. Puddey, Lawrence J. Beilin, Geoffrey Annison, Peter R C Howe

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Objective: To evaluate the effect of consuming a variety of foods enriched in long-chain n-3 fatty acids in low fish eaters. Design: Evaluation of reported dietary intakes in a 6-month, double-blind, randomized, controlled parallel design trial. Subjects/setting: Eighty-five men and women with overweight and mildly elevated triglyceride levels who have a low habitual intake of fish. Intervention: Subjects were randomized to consume foods either enriched in long-chain n-3 fats or control foods (not enriched). Subjects were asked to consume eight portions per day (equivalent to approximately 1 g/day long-chain n-3 fatty acid if randomized to the intervention). Main outcome measure: Reported energy, macronutrient, and fatty acid intakes were measured by diet history, 3-day food records, and body weight. Statistical analyses: Repeated measures analysis of variance, Kruskall-Wallis test, Pearson's correlation coefficient, and Bland-Altman plots were conducted. Results: The two groups did not differ in mean dietary intake of long-chain n-3 fatty acid intake at baseline (258 mg and 313 mg for the intervention and control groups, respectively). At 6 months the intervention group members increased their intake of long-chain n-3 fats 4.5-fold compared with baseline and with the control group (P<.001). The data from the diet histories correlated well with the food records for all reported macronutrient and fatty acid values. Food pattern analysis showed that milk (13.8%), cereal (12.1%), and bread (11.3%) contributed the most to the overall long-chain n-3 fatty acid intake in the intervention group. Conclusions: This long-term study in free-living subjects indicates that population intakes of long-chain n-3 fatty acids could be substantially increased through the availability of a variety of n-3 fatty acid-enriched processed foods.

Number of pages9
JournalJournal of the American Dietetic Association
Issue number12
Publication statusPublished - 1 Jan 2005

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Food Science
  • Nutrition and Dietetics

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