The Stress-Antidepressant-diet (SAD) Paradigm and Weight Gain

Suhyun Lee, Martin Lewis, Claudio A. Mastronardi, Rachel Li, Paul Smith, Julio Licinio, Ma-Li Wong

Research output: Contribution to conferencePoster

Abstract

Background: Antidepressants are the most frequently prescribed class of drugs; about 264 million antidepressant prescription were issued in the US in 2011. The use of most antidepressants is associated with weight gain; however, the pathophysiogical mechanisms of this association are still unknown. Our lab has developed an animal model that addresses “paradoxical weight loss” by investigating the interactions between short-term exposure to stress, antidepressant administration and exposure, and long-term exposure to an obesogenic high-fat diet.

Methods: Male Sprague-Dawley rats are subjected to the following paradigm: Short-term exposure to recurrent restraint stress and antidepressants for 2 weeks, followed by long-term high-fat diet intake, were studied for 295 days. We have classified animals as obesity-prone (upper 50% of body weight) or obesity-resistant (lower 50% of body weight). On study day 295, animals were sacrificed and various organs were collected and weighed. Measurements: Body weight, food intake ratio, behavioural testing, and bone weight.

Results: Obesity-prone rats treated with fluoxetine (RFX) had increased body weight, in comparison to the control group treated with saline (RC) and non-restraint control group (NRCF). The RFX and the imipramine treated group (RIM) groups had significantly lower food intake ratio in comparison to the non-restraint control group (NRCF). The obesity-prone RFX rats had significantly longer body length in comparison to the NRCF, RC and RIM groups. The obesity-prone RFX and RIM rats had significantly larger body circumference in comparison to two control groups. The RFX group were significantly less anxious and had heavier bones.

Conclusions: Our data suggest that the association between stress, exposure to antidepressant treatment, and the long-term intake of an obesogenic high-fat diet is associated with greater weight gain, bone weight and body length in obese-prone RFX rats. We show that animals with antidepressant exposure had a greater degree of weight gain after long-term exposure to an obesogenic diet than animals on the same diet, but without exposure to antidepressants. We advance here the novel concept that antidepressant exposure represents a long-term risk factor for obesity and present the testable hypothesis that antidepressant exposure might be a major hidden contributor to our current obesity epidemic.

Conference

Conference54th Annual Meeting of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology (ACNP)
CountryUnited States
CityHollywood
Period6/12/1510/12/15

Cite this

Lee, S., Lewis, M., Mastronardi, C. A., Li, R., Smith, P., Licinio, J., & Wong, M-L. (2015). The Stress-Antidepressant-diet (SAD) Paradigm and Weight Gain. Poster session presented at 54th Annual Meeting of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology (ACNP), Hollywood, United States.
Lee, Suhyun ; Lewis, Martin ; Mastronardi, Claudio A. ; Li, Rachel ; Smith, Paul ; Licinio, Julio ; Wong, Ma-Li. / The Stress-Antidepressant-diet (SAD) Paradigm and Weight Gain. Poster session presented at 54th Annual Meeting of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology (ACNP), Hollywood, United States.
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title = "The Stress-Antidepressant-diet (SAD) Paradigm and Weight Gain",
abstract = "Background: Antidepressants are the most frequently prescribed class of drugs; about 264 million antidepressant prescription were issued in the US in 2011. The use of most antidepressants is associated with weight gain; however, the pathophysiogical mechanisms of this association are still unknown. Our lab has developed an animal model that addresses “paradoxical weight loss” by investigating the interactions between short-term exposure to stress, antidepressant administration and exposure, and long-term exposure to an obesogenic high-fat diet.Methods: Male Sprague-Dawley rats are subjected to the following paradigm: Short-term exposure to recurrent restraint stress and antidepressants for 2 weeks, followed by long-term high-fat diet intake, were studied for 295 days. We have classified animals as obesity-prone (upper 50{\%} of body weight) or obesity-resistant (lower 50{\%} of body weight). On study day 295, animals were sacrificed and various organs were collected and weighed. Measurements: Body weight, food intake ratio, behavioural testing, and bone weight.Results: Obesity-prone rats treated with fluoxetine (RFX) had increased body weight, in comparison to the control group treated with saline (RC) and non-restraint control group (NRCF). The RFX and the imipramine treated group (RIM) groups had significantly lower food intake ratio in comparison to the non-restraint control group (NRCF). The obesity-prone RFX rats had significantly longer body length in comparison to the NRCF, RC and RIM groups. The obesity-prone RFX and RIM rats had significantly larger body circumference in comparison to two control groups. The RFX group were significantly less anxious and had heavier bones.Conclusions: Our data suggest that the association between stress, exposure to antidepressant treatment, and the long-term intake of an obesogenic high-fat diet is associated with greater weight gain, bone weight and body length in obese-prone RFX rats. We show that animals with antidepressant exposure had a greater degree of weight gain after long-term exposure to an obesogenic diet than animals on the same diet, but without exposure to antidepressants. We advance here the novel concept that antidepressant exposure represents a long-term risk factor for obesity and present the testable hypothesis that antidepressant exposure might be a major hidden contributor to our current obesity epidemic.",
author = "Suhyun Lee and Martin Lewis and Mastronardi, {Claudio A.} and Rachel Li and Paul Smith and Julio Licinio and Ma-Li Wong",
year = "2015",
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language = "English",
note = "54th Annual Meeting of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology (ACNP) ; Conference date: 06-12-2015 Through 10-12-2015",

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Lee, S, Lewis, M, Mastronardi, CA, Li, R, Smith, P, Licinio, J & Wong, M-L 2015, 'The Stress-Antidepressant-diet (SAD) Paradigm and Weight Gain' 54th Annual Meeting of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology (ACNP), Hollywood, United States, 6/12/15 - 10/12/15, .

The Stress-Antidepressant-diet (SAD) Paradigm and Weight Gain. / Lee, Suhyun; Lewis, Martin; Mastronardi, Claudio A.; Li, Rachel; Smith, Paul ; Licinio, Julio; Wong, Ma-Li.

2015. Poster session presented at 54th Annual Meeting of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology (ACNP), Hollywood, United States.

Research output: Contribution to conferencePoster

TY - CONF

T1 - The Stress-Antidepressant-diet (SAD) Paradigm and Weight Gain

AU - Lee, Suhyun

AU - Lewis, Martin

AU - Mastronardi, Claudio A.

AU - Li, Rachel

AU - Smith, Paul

AU - Licinio, Julio

AU - Wong, Ma-Li

PY - 2015/12

Y1 - 2015/12

N2 - Background: Antidepressants are the most frequently prescribed class of drugs; about 264 million antidepressant prescription were issued in the US in 2011. The use of most antidepressants is associated with weight gain; however, the pathophysiogical mechanisms of this association are still unknown. Our lab has developed an animal model that addresses “paradoxical weight loss” by investigating the interactions between short-term exposure to stress, antidepressant administration and exposure, and long-term exposure to an obesogenic high-fat diet.Methods: Male Sprague-Dawley rats are subjected to the following paradigm: Short-term exposure to recurrent restraint stress and antidepressants for 2 weeks, followed by long-term high-fat diet intake, were studied for 295 days. We have classified animals as obesity-prone (upper 50% of body weight) or obesity-resistant (lower 50% of body weight). On study day 295, animals were sacrificed and various organs were collected and weighed. Measurements: Body weight, food intake ratio, behavioural testing, and bone weight.Results: Obesity-prone rats treated with fluoxetine (RFX) had increased body weight, in comparison to the control group treated with saline (RC) and non-restraint control group (NRCF). The RFX and the imipramine treated group (RIM) groups had significantly lower food intake ratio in comparison to the non-restraint control group (NRCF). The obesity-prone RFX rats had significantly longer body length in comparison to the NRCF, RC and RIM groups. The obesity-prone RFX and RIM rats had significantly larger body circumference in comparison to two control groups. The RFX group were significantly less anxious and had heavier bones.Conclusions: Our data suggest that the association between stress, exposure to antidepressant treatment, and the long-term intake of an obesogenic high-fat diet is associated with greater weight gain, bone weight and body length in obese-prone RFX rats. We show that animals with antidepressant exposure had a greater degree of weight gain after long-term exposure to an obesogenic diet than animals on the same diet, but without exposure to antidepressants. We advance here the novel concept that antidepressant exposure represents a long-term risk factor for obesity and present the testable hypothesis that antidepressant exposure might be a major hidden contributor to our current obesity epidemic.

AB - Background: Antidepressants are the most frequently prescribed class of drugs; about 264 million antidepressant prescription were issued in the US in 2011. The use of most antidepressants is associated with weight gain; however, the pathophysiogical mechanisms of this association are still unknown. Our lab has developed an animal model that addresses “paradoxical weight loss” by investigating the interactions between short-term exposure to stress, antidepressant administration and exposure, and long-term exposure to an obesogenic high-fat diet.Methods: Male Sprague-Dawley rats are subjected to the following paradigm: Short-term exposure to recurrent restraint stress and antidepressants for 2 weeks, followed by long-term high-fat diet intake, were studied for 295 days. We have classified animals as obesity-prone (upper 50% of body weight) or obesity-resistant (lower 50% of body weight). On study day 295, animals were sacrificed and various organs were collected and weighed. Measurements: Body weight, food intake ratio, behavioural testing, and bone weight.Results: Obesity-prone rats treated with fluoxetine (RFX) had increased body weight, in comparison to the control group treated with saline (RC) and non-restraint control group (NRCF). The RFX and the imipramine treated group (RIM) groups had significantly lower food intake ratio in comparison to the non-restraint control group (NRCF). The obesity-prone RFX rats had significantly longer body length in comparison to the NRCF, RC and RIM groups. The obesity-prone RFX and RIM rats had significantly larger body circumference in comparison to two control groups. The RFX group were significantly less anxious and had heavier bones.Conclusions: Our data suggest that the association between stress, exposure to antidepressant treatment, and the long-term intake of an obesogenic high-fat diet is associated with greater weight gain, bone weight and body length in obese-prone RFX rats. We show that animals with antidepressant exposure had a greater degree of weight gain after long-term exposure to an obesogenic diet than animals on the same diet, but without exposure to antidepressants. We advance here the novel concept that antidepressant exposure represents a long-term risk factor for obesity and present the testable hypothesis that antidepressant exposure might be a major hidden contributor to our current obesity epidemic.

M3 - Poster

ER -

Lee S, Lewis M, Mastronardi CA, Li R, Smith P, Licinio J et al. The Stress-Antidepressant-diet (SAD) Paradigm and Weight Gain. 2015. Poster session presented at 54th Annual Meeting of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology (ACNP), Hollywood, United States.