The novel adjuvant combination of CpG ODN, indolicidin and polyphosphazene induces potent antibody- and cell-mediated immune responses in mice

J. Kovacs-Nolan, L. Latimer, A. Landi, H. Jenssen, Robert Hancock, L. A. Babiuk, S. van Drunen Littel-van den Hurk

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62 Citations (Scopus)


The need to enhance the immunogenicity of purified subunit antigens and modulate resulting immune responses has prompted the development of new adjuvants. Here, the ability of CpG oligodeoxynucleotides (ODN), a bovine host defence peptide indolicidin, and polyphosphazene to synergistically combine and enhance innate and adaptive immune responses was examined in mice. In vitro, the adjuvant combination of CpG ODN, indolicidin and polyphosphazene (CpG/indol/PP) enhanced the secretion of TNF-α, IL-12p40, and IL-6 by bone marrow-derived DCs (BMDCs) when compared to the individual components. When co-formulated with ovalbumin (OVA), CpG/indol/PP formed antigen-adjuvant complexes, and enhanced antibody and cell-mediated responses in mice, via both MHC I and II pathways, promoting a more balanced antibody-mediated and type 1-biased cell-mediated immune response. Furthermore, substitution of the proline residues of indolicidin with arginine increased the synergistic adjuvant effect of the peptide, and induced significantly higher IgG1 and IgG2a titers and IFN-γ secretion, as well as increased uptake by antigen presenting cells. These results clearly demonstrate that the use of a combination of CpG ODN, indolicidin, and polyphosphazene as adjuvant can significantly enhance an antigen-specific immune response.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)2055-2064
Number of pages10
Issue number14
Publication statusPublished - 23 Mar 2009
Externally publishedYes


  • Adjuvant
  • CpG ODN
  • Host defense peptide
  • Immune responses
  • Polyphosphazene

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Molecular Medicine
  • Immunology and Microbiology(all)
  • veterinary(all)
  • Public Health, Environmental and Occupational Health
  • Infectious Diseases

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