The influence of a heat and moisture exchanger on tracheal climate in a cold environment

J. Karel Zuur, Sara H. Muller, Andrew Vincent, Michiel Sinaasappel, Frans H.C. de Jongh, Frans J.M. Hilgers

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12 Citations (Scopus)


Objective: The incidence of pulmonary complaints, severe tracheitis and lung function deterioration is increased during wintertime in laryngectomized individuals. We analyzed how a heat and moisture exchanger (HME) performs in cold and dry ambient circumstances, and how its efficiency in this environmental climate might be improved. Study design: Randomized crossover. Methods: Intra-tracheal temperature and humidity were measured in 10 laryngectomized patients with and without HME, in a cold (mean, 4.7 °C) and dry (mean, 4.5 mgH2O/L) room. Results: Presence of an HME causes the intra-tracheal mean humidity minima and maxima to increase with 4.2 mgH2O/L (95%CI: 3.3-5.0 mgH2O/L; p < 0.001) and 2.4 mgH2O/L (95%CI: 1.7-3.1 mgH2O/L; p < 0.001), respectively. The intra-tracheal mean temperature minima and maxima increased with 3.9 °C (95%CI: 2.7-5.1 °C; p < 0.001) and 1.2 °C (95%CI: 0.8-1.2 °C; p < 0.001), respectively. In the majority of patients, the calculated relative humidity values appear to reach well above 100% during inspiration. Conclusion: In a cold environment, presence of an HME significantly increases both inspiratory and expiratory temperature and humidity values. Relative humidity calculations suggest the formation of condense droplets during inspiration. To further increase its effectiveness, improvement of the HME's thermal capacity should be aimed for.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)852-857
Number of pages6
JournalMedical Engineering and Physics
Issue number7
Publication statusPublished - Sep 2009


  • Airway climate assessment
  • Cold environment
  • Heat and moisture exchanger
  • Humidity
  • Temperature

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Biophysics
  • Biomedical Engineering

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