The first linkage disequilibrium (LD) maps: Delineation of hot and cold blocks by diplotype analysis

N. Maniatis, A. Collins, C. F. Xu, L. C. McCarthy, D. R. Hewett, W. Tapper, S. Ennis, X. Ke, N. E. Morton

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

147 Citations (Scopus)


Linkage disequilibrium (LD) provides information about positional cloning, linkage, and evolution that cannot be inferred from other evidence, even when a correct sequence and a linkage map based on more than a handful of families become available. We present theory to construct an LD map for which distances are additive and population-specific maps are expected to be approximately proportional. For this purpose, there is only a modest difference in relative efficiency of haplotypes and diplotypes: resolving the latter into 2-locus haplotypes has significant cost or error and increases information by about 50%. LD maps for a cold spot in 19p13.3 and a more typical region in 3q21 are optimized by interval estimates. For a random sample and trustworthy map the value of LD at large distance can be predicted reliably from information over a small distance and does not depend on the evolutionary variance unless the sample size approaches the population size. Values of the association probability that can be distinguished from the value at large distance are determined not by population size but by time since a critical bottleneck. In these examples, omission of markers with significant HardyWeinberg disequilibrium does not improve the map, and widely discrepant draft sequences have similar estimates of the genetic parameters. The LD cold spot in 19p13.3 gives an unusually high estimate of time, supporting an argument that this relationship is general. As predicted for a region with ancient haplotypes or uniformly high recombination, there is no clear evidence of LD clustering. On the contrary, the 3q21 region is resolved into alternating blocks of stable and decreasing LD, as expected from crossover clustering. Construction of a genomewide LD map requires data not yet available, which may be complemented but not replaced by a catalog of haplotypes.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)2228-2233
Number of pages6
JournalProceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Issue number4
Publication statusPublished or Issued - 19 Feb 2002

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • General

Cite this