The draft genome of sweet orange (Citrus sinensis)

Qiang Xu, Ling Ling Chen, Xiaoan Ruan, Dijun Chen, Andan Zhu, Chunli Chen, Denis Bertrand, Wen Biao Jiao, Bao Hai Hao, Matthew P. Lyon, Jiongjiong Chen, Song Gao, Feng Xing, Hong Lan, Ji Wei Chang, Xianhong Ge, Yang Lei, Qun Hu, Yin Miao, Lun WangShixin Xiao, Manosh Kumar Biswas, Wenfang Zeng, Fei Guo, Hongbo Cao, Xiaoming Yang, Xi Wen Xu, Yun Jiang Cheng, Juan Xu, Ji Hong Liu, Oscar Junhong Luo, Zhonghui Tang, Wen Wu Guo, Hanhui Kuang, Hong Yu Zhang, Mikeal L. Roose, Niranjan Nagarajan, Xiu Xin Deng, Yijun Ruan

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

498 Citations (Scopus)


Oranges are an important nutritional source for human health and have immense economic value. Here we present a comprehensive analysis of the draft genome of sweet orange (Citrus sinensis). The assembled sequence covers 87.3% of the estimated orange genome, which is relatively compact, as 20% is composed of repetitive elements. We predicted 29,445 protein-coding genes, half of which are in the heterozygous state. With additional sequencing of two more citrus species and comparative analyses of seven citrus genomes, we present evidence to suggest that sweet orange originated from a backcross hybrid between pummelo and mandarin. Focused analysis on genes involved in vitamin C metabolism showed that GalUR, encoding the rate-limiting enzyme of the galacturonate pathway, is significantly upregulated in orange fruit, and the recent expansion of this gene family may provide a genomic basis. This draft genome represents a valuable resource for understanding and improving many important citrus traits in the future.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)59-66
Number of pages8
JournalNature Genetics
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - 1 Jan 2013

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Genetics

Cite this

Xu, Q., Chen, L. L., Ruan, X., Chen, D., Zhu, A., Chen, C., ... Ruan, Y. (2013). The draft genome of sweet orange (Citrus sinensis). Nature Genetics, 45(1), 59-66.