The antiangiogenic activities of ethanolic crude extracts of four Salvia species

Malek Zihlif, Fatma Afifi, Rana Abu-Dahab, Amin Malik S. Abdul Majid, Hamza Somrain, Mohanad M. Saleh, Zeyad D. Nassar, Randa Naffa

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20 Citations (Scopus)


Background: Angiogenesis is one of cancer hallmarks that are required for both cancer progression and metastasis. In this study we examined the antiangiogenic properties of the ethanolic crude extracts of four Salvia species grown in Jordan. Methods: The direct antiangiogenic activity was evaluated using various models: ex vivo rat aortic ring assay, in vitro assessment of HUVEC proliferation and migration, and in vivo CAM assay, while we used the changes in the expression of HIF-1α and VEGF in breast cancer cells (MCF 7) as an indicative for the indirect antiangiogenic activity. Results: All four crude extracts showed a potential antiangiogenic activity in the rat aortic assay, however two species were found to be cytotoxic against Fibroblast cell line (PLF); the finding that caused the exclusion of these two extracts from further studies. Of the two remaining extracts, S. triloba showed very promising direct and indirect antiangiogenic activities. S. triloba inhibited the HUVEC proliferation with an IC50 of 90 μg/mL and HUVEC migration by 82% at 150 μg/mL. Furthermore, the in vivo CAM assay also illustrated the high impact of S. triloba against the newly formed vessel in the chicken embryonic membrane. Interestingly, the S. triloba inhibited the expression of VEGF at the mRNA and protein and the HIF-1α mRNA in the MCF 7 breast cancer cells under both normoxic and hypoxic conditions. Conclusions: Taken together, all these findings of the direct and indirect angiogenic investigations nominated S. triloba as a highly potent antiangiogenic plant that may have chemotherapeutic and/or chemoprevention potentials.

Original languageEnglish
Article number358
JournalBMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine
Publication statusPublished or Issued - 13 Dec 2013
Externally publishedYes


  • Antiangiogenesis
  • Jordan
  • MCF 7
  • Salvia dominica
  • Salvia hormium
  • Salvia syriaca
  • Salvia triloba

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Complementary and alternative medicine

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