Survival in Patients With Suspected Myocardial Infarction With Nonobstructive Coronary Arteries: A Comprehensive Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis From the MINOCA Global Collaboration

Sivabaskari Pasupathy, Bertil Lindahl, Peter Litwin, Rosanna Tavella, Michael J.A. Williams, Tracy Air, Christopher Zeitz, Nathaniel R. Smilowitz, Harmony R. Reynolds, Kai M. Eggers, Anna M. Nordenskjöld, Peter Barr, Tomas Jernberg, Raffaele Marfella, Kevin Bainey, Karam Sodoon Alzuhairi, Nina Johnston, Andrew Kerr, John F. Beltrame

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BACKGROUND: Suspected myocardial infarction (MI) with nonobstructive coronary arteries (MINOCA) occurs in ≈5% to 10% of patients with MI referred for coronary angiography. The prognosis of these patients may differ to those with MI and obstructive coronary artery disease (MI-CAD) and those without a MI (patients without known history of MI [No-MI]). The primary objective of this study is to evaluate the 12-month all-cause mortality of patients with MINOCA. METHODS: Using Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses guidelines, the terms "MI," "nonobstructive," "angiography," and "prognosis" were searched in PubMed and Embase databases from inception to December 2018, including original, English language MINOCA studies with >100 consecutive patients. Publications with a heterogeneous cohort, unreported coronary stenosis, or exclusively focusing on MINOCA-mimicking conditions, were excluded. Unpublished data were obtained from the MINOCA Global Collaboration. Data were pooled and analyzed using Paule-Mandel, Hartung, Knapp, Sidik & Jonkman, or restricted maximum-likelihood random-effects meta-analysis methodology. Heterogeneity was assessed using Cochran's Q and I2 statistics. The primary outcome was 12-month all-cause mortality in patients with MINOCA, with secondary comparisons to MI-CAD and No-MI. RESULTS: The 23 eligible studies yielded 55 369 suspected MINOCA, 485 382 MI-CAD, and 33 074 No-MI. Pooled meta-analysis of 14 MINOCA studies accounting for 30 733 patients revealed an unadjusted 12-month all-cause mortality rate of 3.4% (95% CI, 2.6%-4.2%) and reinfarction (n=27 605; 10 studies) in 2.6% (95% CI, 1.7%-3.5%). MINOCA had a lower 12-month all-cause mortality than those with MI-CAD (3.3% [95% CI, 2.5%-4.1%] versus 5.6% [95% CI, 4.1%-7.0%]; odds ratio, 0.60 [95% CI, 0.52-0.70], P<0.001). In contrast, there was a statistically nonsignificant trend towards increased 12-month all-cause mortality in patients with MINOCA (2.6% [95% CI, 0%-5.9%]) compared with No-MI (0.7% [95% CI, 0.1%-1.3%]; odds ratio, 3.71 [95% CI, 0.58-23.61], P=0.09). CONCLUSIONS: In the largest contemporary MINOCA meta-analysis to date, patients with suspected MINOCA had a favorable prognosis compared with MI-CAD, but statistically nonsignificant trend toward worse outcomes compared to those with No-MI. Registration: URL:; Unique identifier: CRD42020145356.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)e007880
JournalCirculation: Cardiovascular Quality and Outcomes
Issue number11
Publication statusPublished or Issued - 1 Nov 2021


  • coronary artery disease
  • meta-analysis
  • mortality
  • myocardial infarction
  • prognosis

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine

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