Smoking status and antithrombin therapy in patients with non-ST-segment elevation acute coronary syndrome

Steve Leung, Dianne Gallup, Kenneth W. Mahaffey, Marc Cohen, Elliott M. Antman, Shaun G. Goodman, Robert A. Harrington, Anatoly Langer, Philip Aylward, James J. Ferguson, Robert M. Califf

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Abstract

Background: Smoking remains a major public health issue. We investigated the incidence of smoking and outcomes in high-risk patients with acute coronary syndromes. Differences in treatment effect of antithrombin therapies were also investigated. Methods: Using data from SYNERGY, patients were categorized by their self-reported smoking status. They were followed at 30 days and 6 months for death, nonfatal myocardial infarction (MI), revascularization procedures, stroke, and need for rehospitalization, and at 1 year for occurrences of death. Results: Overall, 9,971 patients were evaluated, of whom 2,404 (24%) were current smokers, 3,491 (35%) were former smokers, and 4076 (41%) had never smoked. Current smokers were younger (median age 61 years, interquartile range [IQR] 52-67) than former smokers (median age 69 years, IQR 63-75) and never smokers (median age 70 years, IQR 64-77) and had fewer additional coronary artery disease risk factors (hypertension, diabetes, hypercholesterolemia). The 30-day death/MI rate was similar for former versus never smokers (15% vs 13.6%, P = .079) and for current versus never smokers (14% vs 13.6%, P = .585). Adjusted odds ratios for 30-day death/MI in patients receiving enoxaparin compared with those receiving unfractionated heparin were 1.065 (95% CI 0.883-1.283, P = .51) in never smokers, 1.034 (95% CI 0.853-1.254, P = .733) in former smokers, and 0.742 (95% CI 0.582-0.948, P = .017) in current smokers. A significant interaction for treatment and smoking status was found at 30 days (P = .0215), but not at 6 months (P = .1381) or 1 year (P = .1054). One-year unadjusted mortality rates were higher for former versus never smokers (9.1% vs 6.7%, P = .0002) but were similar for current versus never smokers (6.5% vs 6.7%, P = .7226). On follow-up at 30 days, 62.3% (n =1397) of current smokers reported not smoking. Conclusions: Smokers with non-ST-segment elevation acute coronary syndrome are generally younger and have fewer cardiac risk factors. A significant interaction of smoking and enoxaparin was seen at 30 days, but not sustained at 6 months and 1 year. More than 60% of smokers quit within 30 days of their cardiac event. There was little difference in outcomes from 30 days to 1 year for these smokers who quit versus those who did not.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)177-184
Number of pages8
JournalAmerican Heart Journal
Volume156
Issue number1
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 1 Jul 2008

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine

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