Background: The 3-dimensional (3D) nature of sinoatrial node (SAN) function has not been characterized in the intact human heart. Objective: The purpose of this study was to characterize the 3D nature of SAN function in patients with structural heart disease (SHD) using simultaneous endocardial–epicardial (endo–epi) phase mapping. Methods: Simultaneous intraoperative endo–epi SAN mapping was performed during sinus rhythm at baseline (SRbaseline) and postoverdrive suppression at 600 ms (SRpost-pace600) and 400 ms (SRpost-pace400) using 2 Abbott Advisor HD Grid Mapping Catheters. Unipolar and bipolar electrograms (EGMs) were exported for phase analysis to determine (1) activation exits; (2) wavefront propagation sequence; (3) endo–epi dissociation; and (4) fractionation. Comparison of these variables was made among the 3 rhythms from an endo–epi perspective. Results: Sixteen patients with SHD were included. SRbaseline activations were unicentric and predominantly exited cranially (87.5%) with endo–epi synchrony. However, with overdrive suppression, a tendency for caudal exit shift and endo–epi asynchrony was observed: SRpost-pace600 vs SRbaseline: cranial endo 75% vs 87.5% (P = .046); cranial epi 68.8% vs 87.5% (P = 0.002); caudal endo 12.5% vs 6.2% (P = 0.215); caudal epi 25% vs 6.2% (P = .0003); and SRpost-pace400 vs SRbaseline: cranial endo 81.3% vs 87.5% (P = 0.335); cranial epi 68.7% vs 87.5% (P = 0.0034; caudal endo 12.5% vs 6.2% (P = .148); caudal epi 31.2% vs 6.2% (P = 0.0017), consistent with multicentricity. EGM fractionation was more prevalent with overdrive suppression. Conclusion: During mapping of the intact human heart, SAN demonstrated redundancy of sinoatrial exits with postoverdrive shift in sites of earliest activation and epi–endo dissociation of sinoatrial exits.
- Endocardial–epicardial mapping
- Overdrive suppression
- Sinus node
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine
- Physiology (medical)