Role of protein and carbohydrate sources on acute appetite responses in lean and overweight men

Jane Bowen, Manny Noakes, Peter Clifton

Research output: Contribution to journalReview article

11 Citations (Scopus)


Dietary protein induces greater satiety compared with carbohydrate in lean subjects, which may involve appetite-regulatory gut hormones. Little is known about the duration of effect, influence of protein and carbohydrate source and relevance to non-lean individuals. We compared the effect of various dietary proteins and carbohydrates on post-prandial appetite ratings, ad libitum energy intake (EI) and appetite hormones in lean and overweight men. Three randomised double-blinded cross-over studies examined appetite response (appetite ratings, ghrelin, glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) and cholecystokinin) to liquid preloads over three to fourhours followed by a buffet meal to assess ad libitum EI. The 1-MJ preloads contained ∼55g of protein (whey, casein, soy and gluten), carbohydrate (glucose, lactose and fructose) or combined whey/fructose. EI was 10% higher following glucose preloads compared with protein preloads, observed at threehours but not fourhours. Protein ingestion was followed by prolonged elevation of cholecystokinin and GLP-1 (twohours) and suppression of ghrelin (three to fourhours) compared with glucose and independent of protein type. Replacing some whey with fructose attenuated the effect of protein on these hormones. Treatment effects on EI and appetite hormones were independent of bodyweight status, despite higher GLP-1 and lower ghrelin in overweight subjects. Protein-rich liquid preloads reduce EI over threehours in overweight men compared with glucose. These findings suggest a potential application for protein-rich drinks and/or foods to facilitate reduced EI. Future studies should explore additional dietary manipulations that may enhance this relationship, and confirm these effects within the context of energy-restricted dietary patterns.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)S71-S78
JournalNutrition and Dietetics
Issue numberSUPPL. 3
Publication statusPublished - 1 Jun 2008


  • Appetite
  • Carbohydrate
  • GLP-1
  • Ghrelin
  • Overweight
  • Protein

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Nutrition and Dietetics

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