Increasing attention has been focused on the appropriate role of surrogate markers in the development of novel anti-atherosclerotic therapies. Technological advances in imaging modalities allow for visualisation of the entire arterial wall. Intravascular ultrasound (IVUS) has been increasingly employed to precisely quantify the extent of coronary atherosclerosis. Use of IVUS has provided a number of important insights into the natural history of atherosclerosis and the remodelling changes of the arterial wall in response to plaque accumulation. More recently, clinical trials have employed serial evaluations of arterial segments by IVUS to assess the impact of medical therapies.
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