Regulation of virulence and antibiotic resistance by two-component regulatory systems in Pseudomonas aeruginosa

W. James Gooderham, Robert E.W. Hancock

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

208 Citations (Scopus)


The Gram-negative opportunistic pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa ubiquitously inhabits soil and water habitats and also causes serious, often antibiotic resistant, infections in immunocompromised patients (e.g. cystic fibrosis). This versatility is mediated in part by a large repertoire of two-component regulatory systems that appear instrumental in the regulation of both virulence processes and resistance to antimicrobials. Major two-component regulatory system proteins demonstrated to regulate these diverse processes include PhoP-PhoQ, GacA-GacS, RetS, LadS, and AlgR, among others. Here, we summarize the current body of knowledge of these and other two-component systems that provides insight into the complex regulation of virulence and resistance in P. aeruginosa.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)279-294
Number of pages16
JournalFEMS Microbiology Reviews
Issue number2
Publication statusPublished or Issued - Mar 2009


  • Antimicrobial resistance
  • Pseudomonas aeruginosa
  • Two-component regulatory system
  • Virulence

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Microbiology
  • Infectious Diseases

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