Prevalence, Extent, and Severity of Oral Health Impacts Among Adults in Rural Karnataka, India

M. Bhat, S. Bhat, M. Brondani, G. C. Mejia, A. Pradhan, K. Roberts-Thomson, L. G. Do

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Abstract

Introduction: Oral health affects quality of life. Many studies have investigated the factors associated with oral health–related quality of life (OHRQoL). Little is known about OHRQoL of adults living in rural and remote areas of India, where many have lower levels of education and limited availability of oral health care services. Objectives: To determine the prevalence, extent, and severity of OHRQoL impacts associated with psychosocial factors, functional dentition, and patterns of dental visits among rural Indian adults between the ages of 35 and 54 y. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted with a multistage stratified sampling strategy targeting 35- to 54-year-olds. Interviews and oral examinations were performed to collect data on sociodemographic variables, Oral Health Impact Profile-14 (OHIP-14), patterns of dental visits, stress, tobacco and alcohol use, and dentition status. Univariate, bivariate, and multivariable analyses were done to determine the factors associated with prevalence, extent, and severity of OHIP-14 using SAS version 9.3. Results: There were 873 participants. Prevalence, extent, and severity of OHIP-14 were 13.4%, 0.5 (0.4-0.7), and 11.8 (11.2-12.5), respectively. The OHIP-14 impacts reported were not severe and mostly affected physical functioning. Levels of education, income, and number of functional teeth (FT) were inversely associated and last dental visit within the previous year was positively associated with prevalence, extent, and severity of OHIP-14. The prevalence of 1 or more oral health impacts was nearly 13% among rural middle-aged adults in India. Conclusions: Low socioeconomic conditions, dental visits, and FT ≤19 were positively associated with prevalence, extent, and severity of oral health impacts. Knowledge Transfer Statement: This article provides data regarding OHRQoL of people in rural areas of a developing country. The study was intended to determine the factors associated with OHRQoL in rural people who are less educated and living in areas with minimal oral health care facilities. The findings of this study could potentially facilitate further research and health promotional activities for rural people of developing countries.

Original languageEnglish
JournalJDR Clinical and Translational Research
DOIs
Publication statusAccepted/In press - 1 Jan 2020

Keywords

  • OHIP-14
  • function dentition
  • oral health behavior
  • oral health–related quality of life
  • rural population
  • ‘developing country

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Dentistry(all)

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