Predictors of parental discretionary choice provision using the health action process approach framework: Development and validation of a self-reported questionnaire for parents of 4–7-year-olds

Brittany J. Johnson, Dorota Zarnowiecki, Gilly A. Hendrie, Rebecca K. Golley

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

1 Citation (Scopus)


Aim: Children's intake of discretionary choices is excessive. This study aimed to develop a questionnaire measuring parents’ attitudes and beliefs towards limiting provision of discretionary choices, using the Health Action Process Approach model. Methods: The questionnaire items were informed by the Health Action Process Approach model, which extends the Theory of Planned Behaviour to include both motivational (intention) and volitional (post-intention) factors that influence behaviour change. The questionnaire was piloted for content and face validity (expert panel, n = 5; parents, n = 4). Construct and predictive validity were examined in a sample of 178 parents of 4–7-year-old children who completed the questionnaire online. Statistical analyses included exploratory factor analyses, Cronbach's alpha and multiple linear regression. Results: Pilot testing supported content and face validity. Principal component analyses identified constructs that aligned with the eight constructs of the Health Action Process Approach model. Internal consistencies were high for all subscales, in both the motivational (Cronbach's alpha 0.77–0.88) and volitional phase (Cronbach's alpha 0.85–0.92). Conclusions: Initial results from validation tests support the development of a new questionnaire for measuring parent attitudes and beliefs regarding provision of discretionary choices to their 4–7-year-old children within the home. This new questionnaire can be used to gain greater insight into parents’ attitudes and beliefs that influence ability to limit discretionary choices provision to children. Further research to expand understanding of the questionnaires’ psychometric properties would be valuable, including confirmatory factor analysis and reproducibility.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)431-442
Number of pages12
JournalNutrition and Dietetics
Issue number4
Publication statusPublished - Sep 2018
Externally publishedYes


  • Health Action Process Approach
  • discretionary choice
  • parent
  • questionnaire

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Nutrition and Dietetics

Cite this