Plasma free amino acid responses to whey protein and their relationships with gastric emptying, blood glucose- and appetite-regulatory hormones and energy intake in lean healthy men

Rachel A. Elovaris, Amy Hutchison, Kylie Lange, Michael Horowitz, Christine Feinle-Bisset, Natalie D. Luscombe-Marsh

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

7 Citations (Scopus)


This study determined the effects of increasing loads of whey protein on plasma amino acid (AA) concentrations, and their relationships with gastric emptying, blood glucose-and appetite-regulatory hormones, blood glucose and energy intake. Eighteen healthy lean men participated in a double-blinded study, in which they consumed, on 3 separate occasions, in randomised order, 450-mL drinks containing either 30 g (L) or 70 g (H) of pure whey protein isolate, or control with 0 g of protein (C). Gastric emptying, serum concentrations of AAs, ghrelin, cholecystokinin (CCK), glucagon-like-peptide 1 (GLP-1), insulin, glucagon and blood glucose were measured before and after the drinks over 180 min. Then energy intake was quantified. All AAs were increased, and 7/20 AAs were increased more by H than L. Incremental areas under the curve (iAUC0–180 min) for CCK, GLP-1, insulin and glucagon were correlated positively with iAUCs of 19/20 AAs (p < 0.05). the strongest correlations were with the branched-chain AAs as well as lysine, tyrosine, methionine, tryptophan, and aspartic acid (all R2 > 0.52, p < 0.05). Blood glucose did not correlate with any AA (all p > 0.05). Ghrelin and energy intake correlated inversely, but only weakly, with 15/20 AAs (all R2 < 0.34, p < 0.05). There is a strong relationship between gluco-regulatory hormones with a number of (predominantly essential) AAs. However, the factors mediating the effects of protein on blood glucose and energy intake are likely to be multifactorial.

Original languageEnglish
Article number2465
Issue number10
Publication statusPublished or Issued - Oct 2019


  • Appetite regulation
  • Branched-chain amino acids
  • Cholecystokinin
  • Dairy
  • Glucagon
  • Glucagon-like peptide-1
  • Human

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Food Science
  • Nutrition and Dietetics

Cite this