Background: Pain persists in a moderate proportion of patients after total knee arthroplasty (TKA). Identifying patient factors that are associated with persistent pain may lead to improved care. Purpose: The purpose of the study was to identify preoperative factors associated with increased opioid prescriptions after TKA. Methods: A retrospective cohort study of TKAs in an integrated health-care system (January 2008-December 2011) was conducted. The number of opioid prescriptions per 90-day period after TKA (up to 1 year), was the outcome of interest. Patient risk factors that were evaluated included demographics, pain prescriptions, comorbidities, and chronic pain conditions. Multivariable Poisson regression models were employed. Results: The median age for 23,726 patients was 67 years. Before surgery, 60.0% used opioids. Three months after surgery, 41.2% of patients continued using opioids. Factors associated with greater opioid use included: younger age (odds ratio [OR] = 0.83, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.82-0.84 per 10-year increase), liver disease (OR = 1.11, 95% CI 1.06-1.16), preoperative nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug use (OR = 1.09, 95% CI 1.07-1.10), anxiety (OR = 1.05, 95% CI 1.03-1.08), substance abuse (OR = 1.03, 95% CI 1.00-1.06), diabetes mellitus (OR = 1.03, 95% CI 1.01-1.05), preoperative opioid use (OR = 1.04, 95% CI 1.04-1.04), back pain (OR = 1.23, 95% CI 1.18-1.127), congestive heart failure (OR = 1.16, 95% CI 1.06-1.27), depression (OR = 1.14, 95% CI 1.09-1.18), fibromyalgia (OR = 1.10, 95% CI 1.02-1.18), hypertension (OR = 1.06, 95% CI 1.02-1.10), nonspecific chronic pain (OR = 1.06, 95% CI 1.02-1.10), black race (OR = 1.17, 95% CI 1.12-1.23), and chronic lung disease (OR = 1.05, 95% CI 1.01-1.10). Conclusion: Several preoperative factors were associated with prolonged opioid use after TKA, and their identification can assist providers guide pain management. Avoidance or weaning of preoperative opioids should be considered.
- patient risk factors
- prolonged use
- total knee arthroplasty
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Orthopedics and Sports Medicine