Optimization of cat's whiskers tea (orthosiphon stamineus) using supercritical carbon dioxide and selective chemotherapeutic potential against prostate cancer cells

Fouad Saleih R. Al-Suede, Mohamed B. Khadeer Ahamed, Aman S. Abdul Majid, Hussin M. Baharetha, Loiy E.A. Hassan, Mohd Omar A. Kadir, Zeyad D. Nassar, Amin M.S. Abdul Majid

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Abstract

Cat's whiskers (Orthosiphon stamineus) leaves extracts were prepared using supercritical CO2 (SC-CO2) with full factorial design to determine the optimum extraction parameters. Nine extracts were obtained by varying pressure, temperature, and time. The extracts were analysed using FTIR, UV-Vis, and GC-MS. Cytotoxicity of the extracts was evaluated on human (colorectal, breast, and prostate) cancer and normal fibroblast cells. Moderate pressure (31.1 MPa) and temperature (60°C) were recorded as optimum extraction conditions with high yield (1.74%) of the extract (B2) at 60 min extraction time. The optimized extract (B2) displayed selective cytotoxicity against prostate cancer (PC3) cells (IC50 28 μg/mL) and significant antioxidant activity (IC50 42.8 μg/mL). Elevated levels of caspases 3/7 and 9 in B2-treated PC3 cells suggest the induction of apoptosis through nuclear and mitochondrial pathways. Hoechst and rhodamine assays confirmed the nuclear condensation and disruption of mitochondrial membrane potential in the cells. B2 also demonstrated inhibitory effects on motility and colonies of PC3 cells at its subcytotoxic concentrations. It is noteworthy that B2 displayed negligible toxicity against the normal cells. Chemometric analysis revealed high content of essential oils, hydrocarbon, fatty acids, esters, and aromatic sesquiterpenes in B2. This study highlights the therapeutic potentials of SC-CO2 extract of cat's whiskers in targeting prostate carcinoma.

Original languageEnglish
Article number396016
JournalEvidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine
Volume2014
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 29 Jul 2014

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Complementary and alternative medicine

Cite this

Al-Suede, F. S. R., Khadeer Ahamed, M. B., Abdul Majid, A. S., Baharetha, H. M., Hassan, L. E. A., Kadir, M. O. A., ... Abdul Majid, A. M. S. (2014). Optimization of cat's whiskers tea (orthosiphon stamineus) using supercritical carbon dioxide and selective chemotherapeutic potential against prostate cancer cells. Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine, 2014, [396016]. https://doi.org/10.1155/2014/396016