Maternal Hb during pregnancy and offspring's educational achievement: A prospective cohort study over 30 years

Mohammad Fararouei, Claire Robertson, John Whittaker, Ulla Sovio, Aimo Ruokonen, Anneli Pouta, Anna Liisa Hartikainen, Marjo Riitta Jarvelin, Elina Hyppönen

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    14 Citations (Scopus)


    The aim of the present study was to examine the association between maternal Hb levels during pregnancy and educational achievement of the offspring in later life. We analysed data obtained from the Northern Finnish Birth Cohort Study conducted in 1966, in which, data on mothers and offspring from pregnancy through to the age of 31 years were collected. The cohort comprised 11656 individuals born from singleton births (51% males and 49% females). Maternal Hb levels were available from the third, seventh and ninth gestational months. Educational achievement was measured as school scores (range 4-10) taken at the ages of 14 (self-reported questionnaires) and 16 (school reports) years as well as the highest level of education at the age of 31 years. The present results showed a direct positive association between Hb levels and educational achievement in later life. After adjustment for sex, birth weight, birth month and a wide range of maternal factors (parity, smoking, mental status, whether pregnancy was wanted or not, education, social class and marital status), only maternal Hb levels that were measured at the ninth month were significantly associated with the offspring's school performance. If the levels were≥ 110g/l at all the three measurement points, offspring not only had better school scores at the ages of 14 and 16 years (β=0048, P=004 andβ =068, P=0007, respectively), but also had an increased odds of having a higher level of education at the age of 31 years (OR=114, P=004). The present study suggests that low maternal Hb levels at the final stages of pregnancy are linked to the poorer educational achievement of the offspring. If our observation is confirmed, it would suggest that Fe prophylaxis even at fairly late stages of pregnancy may be beneficial for the subsequent health of the offspring. However, more studies are needed to fully establish the potential pathways and the clinical importance of the present findings.

    Original languageEnglish
    Pages (from-to)1363-1368
    Number of pages6
    JournalBritish Journal of Nutrition
    Issue number9
    Publication statusPublished or Issued - 14 Nov 2010


    • Cohort study
    • Higher education
    • Maternal Hb
    • School achievement

    ASJC Scopus subject areas

    • Medicine (miscellaneous)
    • Nutrition and Dietetics

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