Lower urinary tract symptoms, depression, anxiety and systemic inflammatory factors in men: A population-based cohort study

Sean Martin, Andrew Vincent, Anne W. Taylor, Evan Atlantis, Alicia Jenkins, Andrzej Januszewski, Peter O'Loughlin, Gary Wittert

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28 Citations (Scopus)


Background: The relationship between lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) and common mental health disorders such as depression and anxiety in men remains unclear. Inflammation has recently been identified as an independent risk factor for LUTS and depression. This study aimed to assess the association between depression, anxiety and LUTS, and the moderating influence of systemic inflammation, in the presence of other biopsychosocial confounders. Methods: Participants were randomly-selected from urban, community-dwelling males aged 35-80 years at recruitment (n = 1195; sample response rate:67.8%). Of these, 730 men who attended baseline (2002-5) and follow-up clinic visits (2007-10), with complete outcome measures, and without prostate or bladder cancer and/or surgery, neurodegenerative conditions, or antipsychotic medications use, were selected for the present study. Unadjusted and multi-adjusted regression models of incident storage and voiding LUTS and incident depression and anxiety were combined with serum inflammatory markers (high-sensitive C-reactive protein (hsCRP), tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), interleukin-6 (IL-6), myeloperoxidase (MPO), soluble e-selectin (e-Sel)) and socio-demographic, lifestyle, and health-related factors. Hierarchical multiple regression was used to assessed the moderating effect of inflammatory markers. Results: The incidence of storage, voiding LUTS, depression and anxiety was 16.3%(n = 108), 12.1% (n = 88), 14.5% (n = 108), and 12.2% (n = 107). Regression models demonstrated that men with depression and anxiety at baseline were more likely to have incident storage, but not voiding LUTS (OR: 1.26, 99%CI: 1.01-4.02; and OR:1.74; 99%CI:1.05-2.21, respectively). Men with anxiety and storage LUTS at baseline were more likely to have incident depression (OR: 2.77, 99%CI: 1.65-7.89; and OR:1.45; 99%CI:1.05-2.36, respectively), while men with depression and voiding LUTS were more likely to have anxiety at follow-up (OR: 5.06, 99%CI: 2.81-9.11; and OR:2.40; 99%CI:1.16-4.98, respectively). CRP, TNF-α, and e-Sel were found to have significant moderating effects on the development of storage LUTS (1.06, 0.91-1.96, R2 change: 12.7%), depression (1.17, 1.01-1.54, R2 change: 9.8%), and anxiety (1.35, 1.03-1.76, R2 change: 10.6%), respectively. Conclusions: There is a bidirectional relationship between storage, but not voiding, LUTS and both depression and anxiety. We observed variable moderation effects for selected inflammatory markers on the development of depression, anxiety and storage LUTS.

Original languageEnglish
Article numbere0137903
JournalPloS one
Issue number10
Publication statusPublished or Issued - 7 Oct 2015

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology(all)
  • Agricultural and Biological Sciences(all)
  • General

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