Limited antigenic diversity of Plasmodium falciparum apical membrane antigen 1 supports the development of effective multi-allele vaccines

Ulrich Terheggen, Damien R. Drew, Anthony N. Hodder, Nadia J. Cross, Cleopatra K. Mugyenyi, Alyssa E. Barry, Robin F. Anders, Sheetij Dutta, Faith H.A. Osier, Salenna Elliott, Nicolas Senn, Danielle I. Stanisic, Kevin Marsh, Peter M. Siba, Ivo Mueller, Jack S. Richards, James G. Beeson

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

34 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Background: Polymorphism in antigens is a common mechanism for immune evasion used by many important pathogens, and presents major challenges in vaccine development. In malaria, many key immune targets and vaccine candidates show substantial polymorphism. However, knowledge on antigenic diversity of key antigens, the impact of polymorphism on potential vaccine escape, and how sequence polymorphism relates to antigenic differences is very limited, yet crucial for vaccine development. Plasmodium falciparum apical membrane antigen 1 (AMA1) is an important target of naturally-acquired antibodies in malaria immunity and a leading vaccine candidate. However, AMA1 has extensive allelic diversity with more than 60 polymorphic amino acid residues and more than 200 haplotypes in a single population. Therefore, AMA1 serves as an excellent model to assess antigenic diversity in malaria vaccine antigens and the feasibility of multi-allele vaccine approaches. While most previous research has focused on sequence diversity and antibody responses in laboratory animals, little has been done on the cross-reactivity of human antibodies. Methods: We aimed to determine the extent of antigenic diversity of AMA1, defined by reactivity with human antibodies, and to aid the identification of specific alleles for potential inclusion in a multi-allele vaccine. We developed an approach using a multiple-antigen-competition enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) to examine cross-reactivity of naturally-acquired antibodies in Papua New Guinea and Kenya, and related this to differences in AMA1 sequence. Results: We found that adults had greater cross-reactivity of antibodies than children, although the patterns of cross-reactivity to alleles were the same. Patterns of antibody cross-reactivity were very similar between populations (Papua New Guinea and Kenya), and over time. Further, our results show that antigenic diversity of AMA1 alleles is surprisingly restricted, despite extensive sequence polymorphism. Our findings suggest that a combination of three different alleles, if selected appropriately, may be sufficient to cover the majority of antigenic diversity in polymorphic AMA1 antigens. Antigenic properties were not strongly related to existing haplotype groupings based on sequence analysis.

LanguageEnglish
Article number183
JournalBMC Medicine
Volume12
Issue number1
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 1 Jan 2014
Externally publishedYes

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Medicine(all)

Cite this

Terheggen, U., Drew, D. R., Hodder, A. N., Cross, N. J., Mugyenyi, C. K., Barry, A. E., ... Beeson, J. G. (2014). Limited antigenic diversity of Plasmodium falciparum apical membrane antigen 1 supports the development of effective multi-allele vaccines. BMC Medicine, 12(1), [183]. https://doi.org/10.1186/s12916-014-0183-5
Terheggen, Ulrich ; Drew, Damien R. ; Hodder, Anthony N. ; Cross, Nadia J. ; Mugyenyi, Cleopatra K. ; Barry, Alyssa E. ; Anders, Robin F. ; Dutta, Sheetij ; Osier, Faith H.A. ; Elliott, Salenna ; Senn, Nicolas ; Stanisic, Danielle I. ; Marsh, Kevin ; Siba, Peter M. ; Mueller, Ivo ; Richards, Jack S. ; Beeson, James G. / Limited antigenic diversity of Plasmodium falciparum apical membrane antigen 1 supports the development of effective multi-allele vaccines. In: BMC Medicine. 2014 ; Vol. 12, No. 1.
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Terheggen, U, Drew, DR, Hodder, AN, Cross, NJ, Mugyenyi, CK, Barry, AE, Anders, RF, Dutta, S, Osier, FHA, Elliott, S, Senn, N, Stanisic, DI, Marsh, K, Siba, PM, Mueller, I, Richards, JS & Beeson, JG 2014, 'Limited antigenic diversity of Plasmodium falciparum apical membrane antigen 1 supports the development of effective multi-allele vaccines', BMC Medicine, vol. 12, no. 1, 183. https://doi.org/10.1186/s12916-014-0183-5

Limited antigenic diversity of Plasmodium falciparum apical membrane antigen 1 supports the development of effective multi-allele vaccines. / Terheggen, Ulrich; Drew, Damien R.; Hodder, Anthony N.; Cross, Nadia J.; Mugyenyi, Cleopatra K.; Barry, Alyssa E.; Anders, Robin F.; Dutta, Sheetij; Osier, Faith H.A.; Elliott, Salenna; Senn, Nicolas; Stanisic, Danielle I.; Marsh, Kevin; Siba, Peter M.; Mueller, Ivo; Richards, Jack S.; Beeson, James G.

In: BMC Medicine, Vol. 12, No. 1, 183, 01.01.2014.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

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AU - Terheggen, Ulrich

AU - Drew, Damien R.

AU - Hodder, Anthony N.

AU - Cross, Nadia J.

AU - Mugyenyi, Cleopatra K.

AU - Barry, Alyssa E.

AU - Anders, Robin F.

AU - Dutta, Sheetij

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AU - Elliott, Salenna

AU - Senn, Nicolas

AU - Stanisic, Danielle I.

AU - Marsh, Kevin

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AU - Richards, Jack S.

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N2 - Background: Polymorphism in antigens is a common mechanism for immune evasion used by many important pathogens, and presents major challenges in vaccine development. In malaria, many key immune targets and vaccine candidates show substantial polymorphism. However, knowledge on antigenic diversity of key antigens, the impact of polymorphism on potential vaccine escape, and how sequence polymorphism relates to antigenic differences is very limited, yet crucial for vaccine development. Plasmodium falciparum apical membrane antigen 1 (AMA1) is an important target of naturally-acquired antibodies in malaria immunity and a leading vaccine candidate. However, AMA1 has extensive allelic diversity with more than 60 polymorphic amino acid residues and more than 200 haplotypes in a single population. Therefore, AMA1 serves as an excellent model to assess antigenic diversity in malaria vaccine antigens and the feasibility of multi-allele vaccine approaches. While most previous research has focused on sequence diversity and antibody responses in laboratory animals, little has been done on the cross-reactivity of human antibodies. Methods: We aimed to determine the extent of antigenic diversity of AMA1, defined by reactivity with human antibodies, and to aid the identification of specific alleles for potential inclusion in a multi-allele vaccine. We developed an approach using a multiple-antigen-competition enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) to examine cross-reactivity of naturally-acquired antibodies in Papua New Guinea and Kenya, and related this to differences in AMA1 sequence. Results: We found that adults had greater cross-reactivity of antibodies than children, although the patterns of cross-reactivity to alleles were the same. Patterns of antibody cross-reactivity were very similar between populations (Papua New Guinea and Kenya), and over time. Further, our results show that antigenic diversity of AMA1 alleles is surprisingly restricted, despite extensive sequence polymorphism. Our findings suggest that a combination of three different alleles, if selected appropriately, may be sufficient to cover the majority of antigenic diversity in polymorphic AMA1 antigens. Antigenic properties were not strongly related to existing haplotype groupings based on sequence analysis.

AB - Background: Polymorphism in antigens is a common mechanism for immune evasion used by many important pathogens, and presents major challenges in vaccine development. In malaria, many key immune targets and vaccine candidates show substantial polymorphism. However, knowledge on antigenic diversity of key antigens, the impact of polymorphism on potential vaccine escape, and how sequence polymorphism relates to antigenic differences is very limited, yet crucial for vaccine development. Plasmodium falciparum apical membrane antigen 1 (AMA1) is an important target of naturally-acquired antibodies in malaria immunity and a leading vaccine candidate. However, AMA1 has extensive allelic diversity with more than 60 polymorphic amino acid residues and more than 200 haplotypes in a single population. Therefore, AMA1 serves as an excellent model to assess antigenic diversity in malaria vaccine antigens and the feasibility of multi-allele vaccine approaches. While most previous research has focused on sequence diversity and antibody responses in laboratory animals, little has been done on the cross-reactivity of human antibodies. Methods: We aimed to determine the extent of antigenic diversity of AMA1, defined by reactivity with human antibodies, and to aid the identification of specific alleles for potential inclusion in a multi-allele vaccine. We developed an approach using a multiple-antigen-competition enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) to examine cross-reactivity of naturally-acquired antibodies in Papua New Guinea and Kenya, and related this to differences in AMA1 sequence. Results: We found that adults had greater cross-reactivity of antibodies than children, although the patterns of cross-reactivity to alleles were the same. Patterns of antibody cross-reactivity were very similar between populations (Papua New Guinea and Kenya), and over time. Further, our results show that antigenic diversity of AMA1 alleles is surprisingly restricted, despite extensive sequence polymorphism. Our findings suggest that a combination of three different alleles, if selected appropriately, may be sufficient to cover the majority of antigenic diversity in polymorphic AMA1 antigens. Antigenic properties were not strongly related to existing haplotype groupings based on sequence analysis.

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