Innate immunodeficiency has recently been reported as resulting from the Q293X IRAK-4 mutation with consequent defective TLR/IL-1R signaling. In this study we report a method for the rapid allele-specific detection of this mutation and demonstrate both cell type specificity and ligand specificity in defective IL-1R-associated kinase (IRAK)-4-deficient cellular responses, indicating differential roles for this protein in human PBMCs and primary dermal fibroblasts and in LPS, IL-1β, and TNF-α signaling. We demonstrate transcriptional and post-transcriptional defects despite NF-κB signaling and intact MyD88-independent signaling and propose that dysfunctional complex 1 (IRAK1/TRAF6/TAK1) signaling, as a consequence of IRAK-4 deficiency, generates specific defects in MAPK activation that could underpin this patient's innate immunodeficiency. These studies demonstrate the importance of studying primary human cells bearing a clinically relevant mutation; they underscore the complexity of innate immune signaling and illuminate novel roles for IRAK-4 and the fundamental importance of accessory proinflammatory signaling to normal human innate immune responses and immunodeficiencies.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Immunology and Allergy