Impaired fat oxidation after a single high-fat meal in insulin-sensitive nondiabetic individuals with a family history of type 2 diabetes

Leonie Heilbronn, Søren Gregersen, Deepali Shirkhedkar, Dachun Hu, Lesley V. Campbell

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47 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Individuals with insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes have an impaired ability to switch appropriately between carbohydrate and fatty acid oxidation. However, whether this is a cause or consequence of insulin resistance is unclear, and the mechanism(s) involved in this response is not completely elucidated. Whole-body fat oxidation and transcriptional regulation of genes involved in lipid metabolism in skeletal muscle were measured after a prolonged fast and after consumption of either high-fat (76%) or high-carbohydrate (76%) meals in individuals with no family history of type 2 diabetes (control, n = 8) and in ageand fatness-matched individuals with a strong family history of type 2 diabetes (n = 9). Vastus lateralis muscle biopsies were performed before and 3 h after each meal. Insulin sensitivity and fasting measures of fat oxidation were not different between groups. However, subjects with a family history of type 2 diabetes had an impaired ability to increase fatty acid oxidation in response to the high-fat meal (P < 0.05). This was related to impaired activation of genes involved in lipid metabolism, including those for peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor coactivator-1α (PGC1α) and fatty acid translocase (FAT)/CD36 (P < 0.05). Of interest, adiponectin receptor-1 expression decreased 23% after the high-fat meal in both groups, but it was not changed after the high-carbohydrate meal. In conclusion, an impaired ability to increase fatty acid oxidation precedes the development of insulin resistance in genetically susceptible individuals. PGC1α and FAT/CD36 are likely candidates in mediating this response.

LanguageEnglish
Pages2046-2053
Number of pages8
JournalDiabetes
Volume56
Issue number8
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 1 Aug 2007

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Internal Medicine
  • Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism

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