Type 2 immunity, which involves coordinated regulation of innate and adaptive immune responses, can protect against helminth parasite infection, but may lead to allergy and asthma after inappropriate activation. We demonstrate that il25-/- mice display inefficient Nippostrongylus brasiliensis expulsion and delayed cytokine production by T helper 2 cells. We further establish a key role for interleukin (IL)-25 in regulating a novel population of IL-4-, IL-5-, IL-13-producing non-B/non-T (NBNT), c-kit+, Fcε R1- cells during helminth infection. A deficit in this population in il25-/- mice correlates with inefficient N. brasiliensis expulsion. In contrast, administration of recombinant IL-25 in vivo induces the appearance of NBNT, c-kit+, FcεR1- cells and leads to rapid worm expulsion that is T and B cell independent, but type 2 cytokine dependent. We demonstrate that these IL-25-regulated cells appear rapidly in the draining lymph nodes, implicating them as a source of type 2 cytokines during initiation of worm expulsion.
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