Background:Although the founding members of the INhibitor of Growth (ING) family of histone mark readers, ING1 and ING2, were defined as tumour suppressors in animal models, the role of other ING proteins in cellular proliferation and cancer progression is unclear.Methods:We transduced ex vivo benign prostate hyperplasia tissues with inducible lentiviral particles to express ING proteins. Proliferation was assessed by H3S10 phos immunohistochemistry (IHC). The expression of ING3 was assessed by IHC on a human prostate cancer tissue microarray (TMA). Gene expression was measured by DNA microarray and validated by real-time qPCR.Results:We found that ING3 stimulates cellular proliferation in ex vivo tissues, suggesting that ING3 could be oncogenic. Indeed, ING3 overexpression transformed normal human dermal fibroblasts. We observed elevated levels of ING3 in prostate cancer samples, which correlated with poorer patient survival. Consistent with an oncogenic role, gene-silencing experiments revealed that ING3 is required for the proliferation of breast, ovarian, and prostate cancer cells. Finally, ING3 controls the expression of an intricate network of cell cycle genes by associating with chromatin modifiers and the H3K4 me3 mark at transcriptional start sites.Conclusions:Our investigations create a shift in the prevailing view that ING proteins are tumour suppressors and redefine ING3 as an oncoprotein.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Cancer Research