Sheep were implanted with cannulae to study blood flow through, and drug extraction by, the lungs, kidneys, liver, and gut. Lidocaine, infused to a steady state in conscious sheep, caused no significant changes in cardiac output or regional blood flow, and was cleared principally by the liver, where the extraction ratio usually exceeded 0.9, and by the kidneys, where the extraction ratio was 0.1-0.2. There was no detectable clearance by lungs or gut. Under general anesthesia with 1.5% halothane, the cardiac output and renal and hepatic blood flows were decreased to means of 77, 44, and 79% of mean control values, respectively, but hepatic and renal extraction ratios of lidocaine were not systematically altered, so that regional clearances of lidocaine were not significantly different from those in conscious animals. There was evidence that the total body clearance of lidocaine exceeded the sum of the directly measured regional clearances in both control and general anesthesia studies. These equivocal findings of the effects of general anesthesia on lidocaine clearance are at variance with unequivocal findings of reduced regional clearances of other drugs tested in this preparation.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Anesthesiology and Pain Medicine