Health effects of overweight and obesity in 195 countries over 25 years

Ashkan Afshin, Mohammad H. Forouzanfar, Marissa B. Reitsma, Patrick Sur, Kara Estep, Alex Lee, Laurie Marczak, Ali H. Mokdad, Maziar Moradi-Lakeh, Mohsen Naghavi, Joseph S. Salama, Theo Vos, Kalkidan H. Abate, Cristiana Abbafati, Muktar B. Ahmed, Ziyad Al-Aly, Ala'a Alkerwi, Rajaa Al-Raddadi, Azmeraw T. Amare, Alemayehu Amberbir & 31 others Adeladza K. Amegah, Erfan Amini, Stephen M. Amrock, Ranjit M. Anjana, Johan Ärnlöv, Hamid Asayesh, Amitava Banerjee, Aleksandra Barac, Estifanos Baye, Derrick A. Bennett, Addisu S. Beyene, Sibhatu Biadgilign, Stan Biryukov, Espen Bjertness, Dube J. Boneya, Ismael Campos-Nonato, Juan J. Carrero, Pedro Cecilio, Kelly Cercy, Liliana G. Ciobanu, Leslie Cornaby, Solomon A. Damtew, Lalit Dandona, Rakhi Dandona, Samath D. Dharmaratne, Bruce B. Duncan, Babak Eshrati, Alireza Esteghamati, Valery L. Feigin, João C. Fernandes, GBD 2015 Obesity Collaborators

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

998 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

BACKGROUND: Although the rising pandemic of obesity has received major attention in many countries, the effects of this attention on trends and the disease burden of obesity remain uncertain. METHODS: We analyzed data from 68.5 million persons to assess the trends in the prevalence of overweight and obesity among children and adults between 1980 and 2015. Using the Global Burden of Disease study data and methods, we also quantified the burden of disease related to high body-mass index (BMI), according to age, sex, cause, and BMI in 195 countries between 1990 and 2015. RESULTS: In 2015, a total of 107.7 million children and 603.7 million adults were obese. Since 1980, the prevalence of obesity has doubled in more than 70 countries and has continuously increased in most other countries. Although the prevalence of obesity among children has been lower than that among adults, the rate of increase in childhood obesity in many countries has been greater than the rate of increase in adult obesity. High BMI accounted for 4.0 million deaths globally, nearly 40% of which occurred in persons who were not obese. More than two thirds of deaths related to high BMI were due to cardiovascular disease. The disease burden related to high BMI has increased since 1990; however, the rate of this increase has been attenuated owing to decreases in underlying rates of death from cardiovascular disease. CONCLUSIONS: The rapid increase in the prevalence and disease burden of elevated BMI highlights the need for continued focus on surveillance of BMI and identification, implementation, and evaluation of evidence-based interventions to address this problem. (Funded by the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation.)

LanguageEnglish
Pages13-27
Number of pages15
JournalNew England Journal of Medicine
Volume377
Issue number1
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 6 Jul 2017

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Medicine(all)

Cite this

Afshin, A., Forouzanfar, M. H., Reitsma, M. B., Sur, P., Estep, K., Lee, A., ... GBD 2015 Obesity Collaborators (2017). Health effects of overweight and obesity in 195 countries over 25 years. New England Journal of Medicine, 377(1), 13-27. https://doi.org/10.1056/NEJMoa1614362
Afshin, Ashkan ; Forouzanfar, Mohammad H. ; Reitsma, Marissa B. ; Sur, Patrick ; Estep, Kara ; Lee, Alex ; Marczak, Laurie ; Mokdad, Ali H. ; Moradi-Lakeh, Maziar ; Naghavi, Mohsen ; Salama, Joseph S. ; Vos, Theo ; Abate, Kalkidan H. ; Abbafati, Cristiana ; Ahmed, Muktar B. ; Al-Aly, Ziyad ; Alkerwi, Ala'a ; Al-Raddadi, Rajaa ; Amare, Azmeraw T. ; Amberbir, Alemayehu ; Amegah, Adeladza K. ; Amini, Erfan ; Amrock, Stephen M. ; Anjana, Ranjit M. ; Ärnlöv, Johan ; Asayesh, Hamid ; Banerjee, Amitava ; Barac, Aleksandra ; Baye, Estifanos ; Bennett, Derrick A. ; Beyene, Addisu S. ; Biadgilign, Sibhatu ; Biryukov, Stan ; Bjertness, Espen ; Boneya, Dube J. ; Campos-Nonato, Ismael ; Carrero, Juan J. ; Cecilio, Pedro ; Cercy, Kelly ; Ciobanu, Liliana G. ; Cornaby, Leslie ; Damtew, Solomon A. ; Dandona, Lalit ; Dandona, Rakhi ; Dharmaratne, Samath D. ; Duncan, Bruce B. ; Eshrati, Babak ; Esteghamati, Alireza ; Feigin, Valery L. ; Fernandes, João C. ; GBD 2015 Obesity Collaborators. / Health effects of overweight and obesity in 195 countries over 25 years. In: New England Journal of Medicine. 2017 ; Vol. 377, No. 1. pp. 13-27.
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Afshin, A, Forouzanfar, MH, Reitsma, MB, Sur, P, Estep, K, Lee, A, Marczak, L, Mokdad, AH, Moradi-Lakeh, M, Naghavi, M, Salama, JS, Vos, T, Abate, KH, Abbafati, C, Ahmed, MB, Al-Aly, Z, Alkerwi, A, Al-Raddadi, R, Amare, AT, Amberbir, A, Amegah, AK, Amini, E, Amrock, SM, Anjana, RM, Ärnlöv, J, Asayesh, H, Banerjee, A, Barac, A, Baye, E, Bennett, DA, Beyene, AS, Biadgilign, S, Biryukov, S, Bjertness, E, Boneya, DJ, Campos-Nonato, I, Carrero, JJ, Cecilio, P, Cercy, K, Ciobanu, LG, Cornaby, L, Damtew, SA, Dandona, L, Dandona, R, Dharmaratne, SD, Duncan, BB, Eshrati, B, Esteghamati, A, Feigin, VL, Fernandes, JC & GBD 2015 Obesity Collaborators 2017, 'Health effects of overweight and obesity in 195 countries over 25 years', New England Journal of Medicine, vol. 377, no. 1, pp. 13-27. https://doi.org/10.1056/NEJMoa1614362

Health effects of overweight and obesity in 195 countries over 25 years. / Afshin, Ashkan; Forouzanfar, Mohammad H.; Reitsma, Marissa B.; Sur, Patrick; Estep, Kara; Lee, Alex; Marczak, Laurie; Mokdad, Ali H.; Moradi-Lakeh, Maziar; Naghavi, Mohsen; Salama, Joseph S.; Vos, Theo; Abate, Kalkidan H.; Abbafati, Cristiana; Ahmed, Muktar B.; Al-Aly, Ziyad; Alkerwi, Ala'a; Al-Raddadi, Rajaa; Amare, Azmeraw T.; Amberbir, Alemayehu; Amegah, Adeladza K.; Amini, Erfan; Amrock, Stephen M.; Anjana, Ranjit M.; Ärnlöv, Johan; Asayesh, Hamid; Banerjee, Amitava; Barac, Aleksandra; Baye, Estifanos; Bennett, Derrick A.; Beyene, Addisu S.; Biadgilign, Sibhatu; Biryukov, Stan; Bjertness, Espen; Boneya, Dube J.; Campos-Nonato, Ismael; Carrero, Juan J.; Cecilio, Pedro; Cercy, Kelly; Ciobanu, Liliana G.; Cornaby, Leslie; Damtew, Solomon A.; Dandona, Lalit; Dandona, Rakhi; Dharmaratne, Samath D.; Duncan, Bruce B.; Eshrati, Babak; Esteghamati, Alireza; Feigin, Valery L.; Fernandes, João C.; GBD 2015 Obesity Collaborators.

In: New England Journal of Medicine, Vol. 377, No. 1, 06.07.2017, p. 13-27.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

TY - JOUR

T1 - Health effects of overweight and obesity in 195 countries over 25 years

AU - Afshin, Ashkan

AU - Forouzanfar, Mohammad H.

AU - Reitsma, Marissa B.

AU - Sur, Patrick

AU - Estep, Kara

AU - Lee, Alex

AU - Marczak, Laurie

AU - Mokdad, Ali H.

AU - Moradi-Lakeh, Maziar

AU - Naghavi, Mohsen

AU - Salama, Joseph S.

AU - Vos, Theo

AU - Abate, Kalkidan H.

AU - Abbafati, Cristiana

AU - Ahmed, Muktar B.

AU - Al-Aly, Ziyad

AU - Alkerwi, Ala'a

AU - Al-Raddadi, Rajaa

AU - Amare, Azmeraw T.

AU - Amberbir, Alemayehu

AU - Amegah, Adeladza K.

AU - Amini, Erfan

AU - Amrock, Stephen M.

AU - Anjana, Ranjit M.

AU - Ärnlöv, Johan

AU - Asayesh, Hamid

AU - Banerjee, Amitava

AU - Barac, Aleksandra

AU - Baye, Estifanos

AU - Bennett, Derrick A.

AU - Beyene, Addisu S.

AU - Biadgilign, Sibhatu

AU - Biryukov, Stan

AU - Bjertness, Espen

AU - Boneya, Dube J.

AU - Campos-Nonato, Ismael

AU - Carrero, Juan J.

AU - Cecilio, Pedro

AU - Cercy, Kelly

AU - Ciobanu, Liliana G.

AU - Cornaby, Leslie

AU - Damtew, Solomon A.

AU - Dandona, Lalit

AU - Dandona, Rakhi

AU - Dharmaratne, Samath D.

AU - Duncan, Bruce B.

AU - Eshrati, Babak

AU - Esteghamati, Alireza

AU - Feigin, Valery L.

AU - Fernandes, João C.

AU - GBD 2015 Obesity Collaborators

PY - 2017/7/6

Y1 - 2017/7/6

N2 - BACKGROUND: Although the rising pandemic of obesity has received major attention in many countries, the effects of this attention on trends and the disease burden of obesity remain uncertain. METHODS: We analyzed data from 68.5 million persons to assess the trends in the prevalence of overweight and obesity among children and adults between 1980 and 2015. Using the Global Burden of Disease study data and methods, we also quantified the burden of disease related to high body-mass index (BMI), according to age, sex, cause, and BMI in 195 countries between 1990 and 2015. RESULTS: In 2015, a total of 107.7 million children and 603.7 million adults were obese. Since 1980, the prevalence of obesity has doubled in more than 70 countries and has continuously increased in most other countries. Although the prevalence of obesity among children has been lower than that among adults, the rate of increase in childhood obesity in many countries has been greater than the rate of increase in adult obesity. High BMI accounted for 4.0 million deaths globally, nearly 40% of which occurred in persons who were not obese. More than two thirds of deaths related to high BMI were due to cardiovascular disease. The disease burden related to high BMI has increased since 1990; however, the rate of this increase has been attenuated owing to decreases in underlying rates of death from cardiovascular disease. CONCLUSIONS: The rapid increase in the prevalence and disease burden of elevated BMI highlights the need for continued focus on surveillance of BMI and identification, implementation, and evaluation of evidence-based interventions to address this problem. (Funded by the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation.)

AB - BACKGROUND: Although the rising pandemic of obesity has received major attention in many countries, the effects of this attention on trends and the disease burden of obesity remain uncertain. METHODS: We analyzed data from 68.5 million persons to assess the trends in the prevalence of overweight and obesity among children and adults between 1980 and 2015. Using the Global Burden of Disease study data and methods, we also quantified the burden of disease related to high body-mass index (BMI), according to age, sex, cause, and BMI in 195 countries between 1990 and 2015. RESULTS: In 2015, a total of 107.7 million children and 603.7 million adults were obese. Since 1980, the prevalence of obesity has doubled in more than 70 countries and has continuously increased in most other countries. Although the prevalence of obesity among children has been lower than that among adults, the rate of increase in childhood obesity in many countries has been greater than the rate of increase in adult obesity. High BMI accounted for 4.0 million deaths globally, nearly 40% of which occurred in persons who were not obese. More than two thirds of deaths related to high BMI were due to cardiovascular disease. The disease burden related to high BMI has increased since 1990; however, the rate of this increase has been attenuated owing to decreases in underlying rates of death from cardiovascular disease. CONCLUSIONS: The rapid increase in the prevalence and disease burden of elevated BMI highlights the need for continued focus on surveillance of BMI and identification, implementation, and evaluation of evidence-based interventions to address this problem. (Funded by the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation.)

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DO - 10.1056/NEJMoa1614362

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JO - New England Journal of Medicine

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JF - New England Journal of Medicine

SN - 0028-4793

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Afshin A, Forouzanfar MH, Reitsma MB, Sur P, Estep K, Lee A et al. Health effects of overweight and obesity in 195 countries over 25 years. New England Journal of Medicine. 2017 Jul 6;377(1):13-27. https://doi.org/10.1056/NEJMoa1614362