Glucose absorption in small intestinal diseases

Sony S. Thazhath, Tongzhi Wu, Richard Young, Michael Horowitz, Christopher K. Rayner

Research output: Contribution to journalReview article

9 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Recent developments in the field of diabetes and obesity management have established the central role of the gut in glucose homeostasis; not only is the gut the primary absorptive site, but it also triggers neurohumoral feedback responses that regulate the pre- and post-absorptive phases of glucose metabolism. Structural and/or functional disorders of the intestine have the capacity to enhance (eg: diabetes) or inhibit (eg: short-gut syndrome, critical illness) glucose absorption, with potentially detrimental outcomes. In this review, we first describe the normal physiology of glucose absorption and outline the methods by which it can be quantified. Then we focus on the structural and functional changes in the small intestine associated with obesity, critical illness, short gut syndrome and other malabsorptive states, and particularly Type 2 diabetes, which can impact upon carbohydrate absorption and overall glucose homeostasis.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)301-312
Number of pages12
JournalExpert Review of Gastroenterology and Hepatology
Volume8
Issue number3
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 1 Mar 2014

Keywords

  • GLP-1
  • GLUT2
  • SGLT1
  • bariatric surgery
  • critical illness induced hyperglyaemia
  • gastric emptying
  • short gut syndroM.E.
  • sweet-taste receptor

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Hepatology
  • Gastroenterology

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