Flow-mediated dilatation is impaired by a high-saturated fat diet but not by a high-carbohydrate diet

Jennifer B. Keogh, Jessica A. Grieger, Manny Noakes, Peter M. Clifton

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115 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Objective - It is unknown whether a low-fat diet, which may elevate triglycerides and lower high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol, harms the endothelium. Our aim was to determine whether a low-fat, high-carbohydrate (CARB) diet impaired endothelial vasodilation compared with high saturated fat (SFA), monounsaturated fat (MUFA), or polyunsaturated fat (PUFA) diets. Methods and Results - Forty healthy subjects were randomly crossed over to 4, 3-week isocaloric diets high in PUFA, MUFA, or SFA, containing at least 25 g of the relevant fat or a low-fat, CARB, high-glycemic load diet. Flow-mediated dilatation (FMD), fasting blood lipids, high sensitivity C-reactive protein, plasma intercellular, and vascular adhesion molecules plasma E- and P-selectin were measured after each intervention. SFA impaired FMD compared with all other diets (5.41±2.45% versus 10.80±3.69%; P=0.01). FMD did not change on CARB relative to MUFA or PUFA, despite 23% to 39% rises in triglyceride and 10% to 15% falls in HDL cholesterol. P-selectin was highest after SFA (121±52.7 ng/mL) versus MUFA (98±44.5 ng/mL; P=0.001) and PUFA (96±36.4 ng/mL; P=0.001). Conclusion - High SFA caused deterioration in FMD compared with high PUFA, MUFA, or CARB diets. Inflammatory responses may also be increased on this diet.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1274-1279
Number of pages6
JournalArteriosclerosis, Thrombosis, and Vascular Biology
Volume25
Issue number6
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 1 Jun 2005

Keywords

  • Diet
  • Endothelium
  • FMD
  • P-selectin
  • Saturated fat

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine

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