Expression of the immediate early gene, c-fos , in fetal brain after whole of gestation exposure of pregnant mice to global system for mobile communication microwaves

John W. Finnie, Zhao Cai, Peter C. Blumbergs, Jim Manavis, Tim Kuchel

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

25 Citations (Scopus)


Aims: To study immediate early gene, c-fos , expression as a marker of neural stress after whole of gestation exposure of the fetal mouse brain to mobile telephone-type radiofrequency fields. Methods: Using a purpose-designed exposure system at 900 MHz, pregnant mice were given a single, far-field, whole body exposure at a specific absorption rate of 4 W/kg for 60 min/day from day 1 to day 19 of gestation. Pregnant control mice were sham-exposed or freely mobile in a cage without further restraint. Immediately prior to parturition on gestational day 19, fetal heads were collected, fixed in 4% paraformaldehyde and paraffin embedded. Any stress response in the brain was detected by c-fos immunohistochemistry in the cerebral cortex, basal ganglia, thalamus, hippocampus, midbrain, cerebellum and medulla. Results: c-fos expression was of limited, but consistent, neuroanatomical distribution and there was no difference in immunoreactivity between exposed and control brains. Conclusion: In this animal model, no stress response was detected in the fetal brain using c-fos immunohistochemistry after whole of gestation exposure to mobile telephony.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)333-335
Number of pages3
Issue number4
Publication statusPublished or Issued - 1 Aug 2006


  • Fetal brain
  • Mobile telephony
  • Stress response
  • c-fos

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Pathology and Forensic Medicine

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