Erythrocyte fatty acids of term infants fed either breast milk, standard formula, or formula supplemented with long-chain polyunsaturates

Maria Makrides, Mark A. Neumann, Karen Simmer, Robert A. Gibson

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

53 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

The purpose of our study was to assess whether a supplement of fish oil (FO) and evening primrose oil (EPO) for formula-fed infants was capable of avoiding reductions in erythrocyte docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, 22:6n-3) and arachidonic acid (AA, 20:4n-6) associated with standard formula feeding. Healthy, term infants, whose mothers chose to formula feed, were randomized to either a placebo or supplemented formula for their first 30 wk of life. A reference group of beast-fed infants also was enrolled. Erythrocyte fatty acids were measured by capillary gas chromatography on day 5 and in weeks 6, 16, and 30. Supplementation of formula with 0.36% of total fatty acids as DHA resulted in erythrocyte DHA being maintained at or above breast-fed levels for the entire 30-wk study period, and breast feeding (0.21% DHA) resulted in a modest fall in erythrocyte DHA relative to baseline (day 5) values. The level of erythrocyte DHA in placebo formula-fed infants was halved by week 16. AA levels decreased in all infants in the first six weeks, but the levels in breast- and placebo formula-fed infants increased with age and returned to approximate baseline (day 5) values by 16 and 30 wk of age, respectively. Erythrocyte AA in FO+EPO-supplemented infants remained low and below breast- and placebo formula-fed levels. Our data suggest that dietary supplementation with DHA at 0.36% total fatty acids results in erythrocyte DHA levels above those found in breast-fed infants. EPO supplementation was not effective at maintaining erythrocyte AA when given with FO.

LanguageEnglish
Pages941-948
Number of pages8
JournalLipids
Volume30
Issue number10
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Oct 1995

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Biochemistry
  • Organic Chemistry
  • Cell Biology

Cite this

@article{a9c3d9c3078b4ba7810cda9205f2c45b,
title = "Erythrocyte fatty acids of term infants fed either breast milk, standard formula, or formula supplemented with long-chain polyunsaturates",
abstract = "The purpose of our study was to assess whether a supplement of fish oil (FO) and evening primrose oil (EPO) for formula-fed infants was capable of avoiding reductions in erythrocyte docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, 22:6n-3) and arachidonic acid (AA, 20:4n-6) associated with standard formula feeding. Healthy, term infants, whose mothers chose to formula feed, were randomized to either a placebo or supplemented formula for their first 30 wk of life. A reference group of beast-fed infants also was enrolled. Erythrocyte fatty acids were measured by capillary gas chromatography on day 5 and in weeks 6, 16, and 30. Supplementation of formula with 0.36{\%} of total fatty acids as DHA resulted in erythrocyte DHA being maintained at or above breast-fed levels for the entire 30-wk study period, and breast feeding (0.21{\%} DHA) resulted in a modest fall in erythrocyte DHA relative to baseline (day 5) values. The level of erythrocyte DHA in placebo formula-fed infants was halved by week 16. AA levels decreased in all infants in the first six weeks, but the levels in breast- and placebo formula-fed infants increased with age and returned to approximate baseline (day 5) values by 16 and 30 wk of age, respectively. Erythrocyte AA in FO+EPO-supplemented infants remained low and below breast- and placebo formula-fed levels. Our data suggest that dietary supplementation with DHA at 0.36{\%} total fatty acids results in erythrocyte DHA levels above those found in breast-fed infants. EPO supplementation was not effective at maintaining erythrocyte AA when given with FO.",
author = "Maria Makrides and Neumann, {Mark A.} and Karen Simmer and Gibson, {Robert A.}",
year = "1995",
month = "10",
doi = "10.1007/BF02537486",
language = "English",
volume = "30",
pages = "941--948",
journal = "Lipids",
issn = "0024-4201",
publisher = "Springer Verlag",
number = "10",

}

Erythrocyte fatty acids of term infants fed either breast milk, standard formula, or formula supplemented with long-chain polyunsaturates. / Makrides, Maria; Neumann, Mark A.; Simmer, Karen; Gibson, Robert A.

In: Lipids, Vol. 30, No. 10, 10.1995, p. 941-948.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

TY - JOUR

T1 - Erythrocyte fatty acids of term infants fed either breast milk, standard formula, or formula supplemented with long-chain polyunsaturates

AU - Makrides, Maria

AU - Neumann, Mark A.

AU - Simmer, Karen

AU - Gibson, Robert A.

PY - 1995/10

Y1 - 1995/10

N2 - The purpose of our study was to assess whether a supplement of fish oil (FO) and evening primrose oil (EPO) for formula-fed infants was capable of avoiding reductions in erythrocyte docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, 22:6n-3) and arachidonic acid (AA, 20:4n-6) associated with standard formula feeding. Healthy, term infants, whose mothers chose to formula feed, were randomized to either a placebo or supplemented formula for their first 30 wk of life. A reference group of beast-fed infants also was enrolled. Erythrocyte fatty acids were measured by capillary gas chromatography on day 5 and in weeks 6, 16, and 30. Supplementation of formula with 0.36% of total fatty acids as DHA resulted in erythrocyte DHA being maintained at or above breast-fed levels for the entire 30-wk study period, and breast feeding (0.21% DHA) resulted in a modest fall in erythrocyte DHA relative to baseline (day 5) values. The level of erythrocyte DHA in placebo formula-fed infants was halved by week 16. AA levels decreased in all infants in the first six weeks, but the levels in breast- and placebo formula-fed infants increased with age and returned to approximate baseline (day 5) values by 16 and 30 wk of age, respectively. Erythrocyte AA in FO+EPO-supplemented infants remained low and below breast- and placebo formula-fed levels. Our data suggest that dietary supplementation with DHA at 0.36% total fatty acids results in erythrocyte DHA levels above those found in breast-fed infants. EPO supplementation was not effective at maintaining erythrocyte AA when given with FO.

AB - The purpose of our study was to assess whether a supplement of fish oil (FO) and evening primrose oil (EPO) for formula-fed infants was capable of avoiding reductions in erythrocyte docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, 22:6n-3) and arachidonic acid (AA, 20:4n-6) associated with standard formula feeding. Healthy, term infants, whose mothers chose to formula feed, were randomized to either a placebo or supplemented formula for their first 30 wk of life. A reference group of beast-fed infants also was enrolled. Erythrocyte fatty acids were measured by capillary gas chromatography on day 5 and in weeks 6, 16, and 30. Supplementation of formula with 0.36% of total fatty acids as DHA resulted in erythrocyte DHA being maintained at or above breast-fed levels for the entire 30-wk study period, and breast feeding (0.21% DHA) resulted in a modest fall in erythrocyte DHA relative to baseline (day 5) values. The level of erythrocyte DHA in placebo formula-fed infants was halved by week 16. AA levels decreased in all infants in the first six weeks, but the levels in breast- and placebo formula-fed infants increased with age and returned to approximate baseline (day 5) values by 16 and 30 wk of age, respectively. Erythrocyte AA in FO+EPO-supplemented infants remained low and below breast- and placebo formula-fed levels. Our data suggest that dietary supplementation with DHA at 0.36% total fatty acids results in erythrocyte DHA levels above those found in breast-fed infants. EPO supplementation was not effective at maintaining erythrocyte AA when given with FO.

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=0028875373&partnerID=8YFLogxK

U2 - 10.1007/BF02537486

DO - 10.1007/BF02537486

M3 - Article

VL - 30

SP - 941

EP - 948

JO - Lipids

T2 - Lipids

JF - Lipids

SN - 0024-4201

IS - 10

ER -