Enzyme replacement therapy (ERT) in the MPS VI cat is effective at reducing or eliminating pathology in most connective tissues. One exception is that cartilage and chondrocytes remained distended with extensive lysosomal vacuolation after long-term, high-dose ERT. In this study, we demonstrate that recombinant human N-acetylgalactosamine-4-sulphatase (4S) is taken up by chondrocytes via a mannose-6-phosphate-dependent mechanism and is effective at removing MPS storage. In vitro, the penetration of 4S into articular cartilage is low (partitioning coefficient = 0.06) and i.v. administered enzyme does not distribute significantly into articular cartilage in vivo. To alter the tissue distribution of 4S, the enzyme was coupled to ethylene diamine or poly-L-lysine, increasing its overall charge and diffusion into cartilage, and the dosing frequency of unmodified 4S was increased. Modification resulted in active 4S that maintained its ability to correct MPS storage and increased the partitioning coefficient of 4S into cartilage by 77% and 50% of ethylene diamine and poly-L-lysine, respectively. However, in vivo ERT studies demonstrated that response to therapy was not significantly improved by either the enzyme modifications or change to the dosing regimen, when compared with ERT with unmodified enzyme. Distribution experiments indicated the majority of enzyme is taken up by the liver irrespective of modification. To optimize therapy and improve the amount of enzyme reaching cartilage and other tissues demonstrating poor uptake, it may be necessary to bypass the liver or prolong plasma half-life so that proportionately more enzyme is delivered to other tissues.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Pediatrics, Perinatology, and Child Health