Entrainment and high-density three-dimensional mapping in right atrial macroreentry provide critical complementary information: Entrainment may unmask “visual reentry” as passive

Bhupesh Pathik, Geoffrey Lee, Chrishan Nalliah, Stephen Joseph, Joseph B. Morton, Paul B. Sparks, Prashanthan Sanders, Peter M. Kistler, Jonathan M. Kalman

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

24 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Background With the recent advent of high-density (HD) 3-dimensional (3D) mapping, the utility of entrainment is uncertain. However, the limitations of visual representation and interpretation of these high-resolution 3D maps are unclear. Objective The purpose of this study was to determine the strengths and limitations of both HD 3D mapping and entrainment mapping during mapping of right atrial macroreentry. Methods Fifteen patients were studied. The number and type of circuits accounting for ≥90% of the tachycardia cycle length using HD 3D mapping were verified using systematic entrainment mapping. Entrainment sites with an unexpectedly long postpacing interval despite proximity to the active circuit were evaluated. Results Based on HD 3D mapping, 27 circuits were observed: 12 peritricuspid, 2 upper loop reentry, 10 lower loop reentry, and 3 lateral wall circuits. With entrainment, 17 of the 27 circuits were active: all 12 peritricuspid and 2 upper loop reentry. However, lower loop reentry was confirmed in only 3 of 10, and none of the 3 lateral wall circuits were present. Mean percentage of tachycardia cycle length covered by active circuits was 98% ± 1% vs 97% ± 2% for passive circuits (P =.09). None of the 345 entrainment runs terminated tachycardia or changed tachycardia mechanism. In 8 of 15 patients, 13 examples of unexpectedly long postpacing interval were observed at entrainment sites located distal to localized zones of slow conduction seen on HD 3D mapping. Conclusion Using HD 3D mapping, “visual reentry” may be due to passive circuitous propagation rather than a critical reentrant circuit. HD 3D mapping provides new insights into regional conduction and helps explain unusual entrainment phenomena.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1541-1549
Number of pages9
JournalHeart Rhythm
Volume14
Issue number10
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Oct 2017

Keywords

  • Atrial flutter
  • Atrial macroreentry
  • Atrial tachycardia
  • Entrainment
  • Three-dimensional electroanatomic mapping

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine
  • Physiology (medical)

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