Effects of intragastric administration of L-tryptophan on the glycaemic response to a nutrient drink in men with type 2 diabetes — impacts on gastric emptying, glucoregulatory hormones and glucose absorption

Maryam Hajishafiee, Rachel A. Elovaris, Karen L. Jones, Leonie K. Heilbronn, Michael Horowitz, Sally D. Poppitt, Christine Feinle-Bisset

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Abstract

Background: The rate of gastric emptying and glucoregulatory hormones are key determinants of postprandial glycaemia. Intragastric administration of L-tryptophan slows gastric emptying and reduces the glycaemic response to a nutrient drink in lean individuals and those with obesity. We investigated whether tryptophan decreases postprandial glycaemia and slows gastric emptying in type 2 diabetes (T2D). Methods: Twelve men with T2D (age: 63 ± 2 years, HbA1c: 49.7 ± 2.5 mmol/mol, BMI: 30 ± 1 kg/m2) received, on three separate occasions, 3 g (‘Trp-3’) or 1.5 g (‘Trp-1.5’) tryptophan, or control (0.9% saline), intragastrically, in randomised, double-blind fashion, 30 min before a mixed-nutrient drink (500 kcal, 74 g carbohydrates), containing 3 g 3-O-methyl-D-glucose (3-OMG) to assess glucose absorption. Venous blood samples were obtained at baseline, after tryptophan, and for 2 h post-drink for measurements of plasma glucose, C-peptide, glucagon and 3-OMG. Gastric emptying of the drink was quantified using two-dimensional ultrasound. Results: Tryptophan alone stimulated C-peptide (P = 0.002) and glucagon (P = 0.04), but did not affect fasting glucose. In response to the drink, Trp-3 lowered plasma glucose from t = 15–30 min and from t = 30–45 min compared with control and Trp-1.5, respectively (both P < 0.05), with no differences in peak glucose between treatments. Gastric emptying tended to be slower after Trp-3, but not Trp-1.5, than control (P = 0.06). Plasma C-peptide, glucagon and 3-OMG increased on all days, with no major differences between treatments. Conclusions: In people with T2D, intragastric administration of 3 g tryptophan modestly slows gastric emptying, associated with a delayed rise, but not an overall lowering of, postprandial glucose.

Original languageEnglish
Article number3
JournalNutrition and Diabetes
Volume11
Issue number1
DOIs
Publication statusPublished or Issued - Jun 2021

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Internal Medicine
  • Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism

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