Effects of Cardiac Resynchronization Therapy on Left Ventricular Twist

Matteo Bertini, Nina Ajmone Marsan, Victoria Delgado, Rutger J. van Bommel, Gaetano Nucifora, C. Jan Willem Borleffs, Giuseppe Boriani, Mauro Biffi, Eduard R. Holman, Ernst E. van der Wall, Martin J. Schalij, Jeroen J. Bax

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Objectives: This study explored the effects of cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT) on left ventricular (LV) twist, particularly in relation to LV lead position. Background: LV twist is emerging as a comprehensive index of LV function. Methods: Eighty heart failure patients were included. Two-dimensional echocardiography was performed at baseline, immediately after CRT, and at 6-month follow-up. Speckle-tracking analysis was applied to assess LV twist. The LV lead was placed preferably in a (postero)lateral vein, and at fluoroscopy, the position was classified as basal, midventricular, or apical. Response to CRT was defined as reduction of LV end-systolic volume ≥15% at 6-month follow-up. A control group comprised 30 normal subjects. Results: Peak LV twist in heart failure patients was 4.8 ± 2.6° compared with 15.0 ± 3.6° in the control subjects (p < 0.001). At 6-month follow-up, peak LV twist significantly improved only in responders (56%), from 4.3 ± 2.4° to 8.5 ± 3.2° (p < 0.001). The strongest predictor of response to CRT was the improvement of peak LV twist immediately after CRT (odds ratio: 1.899, 95% confidence interval: 1.334 to 2.703, p < 0.001). Furthermore, LV twist significantly improved in patients with an apical (from 4.3 ± 3.1° to 8.6 ± 3.0°, p = 0.001) and midventricular (from 4.8 ± 2.2° to 6.4 ± 3.9°, p = 0.038) but not with a basal (5.0 ± 3.3° vs. 4.1 ± 3.2°, p = 0.28) LV lead position. Similarly, LV ejection fraction significantly increased in patients with an apical (from 26 ± 7% to 37 ± 7%, p < 0.001) and midventricular (from 26 ± 6% to 33 ± 8%, p < 0.001) but not with a basal (26 ± 5% vs. 28 ± 8%, p = 0.30) LV lead position. Conclusions: An immediate improvement of LV twist after CRT predicts LV reverse remodeling at 6-month follow-up.

Number of pages9
JournalJournal of the American College of Cardiology
Issue number14
Publication statusPublished - 29 Sep 2009


  • cardiac resynchronization therapy
  • heart failure
  • left ventricular lead position
  • left ventricular reverse remodeling
  • left ventricular twist

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine

Cite this

Bertini, M., Marsan, N. A., Delgado, V., van Bommel, R. J., Nucifora, G., Borleffs, C. J. W., ... Bax, J. J. (2009). Effects of Cardiac Resynchronization Therapy on Left Ventricular Twist. Journal of the American College of Cardiology, 54(14), 1317-1325. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jacc.2009.05.063