High-density lipoprotein (HDL) plays an important role in the process of reverse cholesterol transport, which may become suboptimal with increasing body fatness, HDL cholesterol that is reduced in obese subjects paradoxically decreases during weight reduction. To determine how weight reduction affects HDL subclasses that are involved in reverse cholesterol transport, we studied HDL from obese diabetic subjects before and after energy restriction within background diets high in either carbohydrate or monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFAs). Body weight, blood glucose, total cholesterol, and LDL cholesterol decreased after 8 and 12 weeks of weight reduction. With the very-low-fat diet, HDL cholesterol decreased significantly at 8 weeks, but recovered to initial levels after 12 weeks as body weight began to stabilize. Plasma apolipoprotein A-I (apo A-I) decreased substantially and significantly at 8 and 12 weeks with both diets, and was reflected in the reduction of apo A-I in HDL subclasses α1, α2, pre-β1, and pre-β2 + pre-β3. The calculation of the percentage distribution of apo A-I among HDL species showed that only the proportion of pre-β1-HDL decreased, whereas α2-HDL increased. This led to a significant increase in the α1 + α2/pre-β ratio, ie, the ratio of the large cholesterol 'storage' or 'sink' HDL to the HDL 'shuttle' fraction considered to be the initial acceptor of cell cholesterol. These data suggest that despite the reduction in HDL cholesterol and apo A-I, the redistribution of apo A-I in pre-β1-HDL- and α-HDL observed with weight reduction appears to revert to the pattern that we have previously reported in lean as opposed to overweight subjects. (C) 2000 by W.B. Saunders Company.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism