Effect of energy restriction, weight loss, and diet composition on plasma lipids and glucose in patients with type 2 diabetes

Leonie K. Heilbronn, Manny Noakes, Peter M. Clifton

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

120 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

OBJECTIVE - To determine the optimal diet for improving glucose and lipid profiles in obese patients with type 2 diabetes during moderate energy restriction. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS - A total of 35 free-living obese patients with type 2 diabetes were assigned to one of three 1,600 kcal/day diets for 12 weeks. The diets were high carbohydrate (10% fat, 4% saturated), high monounsaturated fat (MUFA) (32% fat, 7% saturated), or high saturated fat (SFA) (32% fat, 17% saturated). RESULTS - Diet composition did not affect the magnitude of weight loss, with subjects losing an average of 6.6 ± 0.9 kg. Energy restriction and weight loss resulted in reductions in fasting plasma glucose (-14%), insulin (-27%), GHb (-14%), and systolic (-7%) and diastolic blood pressure (-10%) levels and the glucose response area (-17%) independent of diet composition. Diet composition did affect the lipoprotein profile. LDL was 10% and 17% lower with the high-carbohydrate and high-MUFA diets, respectively, whereas no change was observed with the high-SFA diet (P < 0.001 for effect of diet). HDL was transiently reduced on the high- carbohydrate diet at weeks 1, 4, and 8, whereas higher fat consumption maintained these levels. The total cholesterol:HDL ratio, although significantly reduced on the high-MUFA diet (P < 0.01), was not different from the other two diets after adjustment for baseline differences. CONCLUSIONS - Energy restriction, independent of diet composition, improves glycemic control; however, reducing SFA intake by replacing SFA with carbohydrate or MUFA reduces LDL maximally during weight loss and to a greater degree than has been shown in weight-stable studies.

LanguageEnglish
Pages889-895
Number of pages7
JournalDiabetes Care
Volume22
Issue number6
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 1 Jun 1999

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Internal Medicine
  • Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism
  • Advanced and Specialised Nursing

Cite this

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title = "Effect of energy restriction, weight loss, and diet composition on plasma lipids and glucose in patients with type 2 diabetes",
abstract = "OBJECTIVE - To determine the optimal diet for improving glucose and lipid profiles in obese patients with type 2 diabetes during moderate energy restriction. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS - A total of 35 free-living obese patients with type 2 diabetes were assigned to one of three 1,600 kcal/day diets for 12 weeks. The diets were high carbohydrate (10{\%} fat, 4{\%} saturated), high monounsaturated fat (MUFA) (32{\%} fat, 7{\%} saturated), or high saturated fat (SFA) (32{\%} fat, 17{\%} saturated). RESULTS - Diet composition did not affect the magnitude of weight loss, with subjects losing an average of 6.6 ± 0.9 kg. Energy restriction and weight loss resulted in reductions in fasting plasma glucose (-14{\%}), insulin (-27{\%}), GHb (-14{\%}), and systolic (-7{\%}) and diastolic blood pressure (-10{\%}) levels and the glucose response area (-17{\%}) independent of diet composition. Diet composition did affect the lipoprotein profile. LDL was 10{\%} and 17{\%} lower with the high-carbohydrate and high-MUFA diets, respectively, whereas no change was observed with the high-SFA diet (P < 0.001 for effect of diet). HDL was transiently reduced on the high- carbohydrate diet at weeks 1, 4, and 8, whereas higher fat consumption maintained these levels. The total cholesterol:HDL ratio, although significantly reduced on the high-MUFA diet (P < 0.01), was not different from the other two diets after adjustment for baseline differences. CONCLUSIONS - Energy restriction, independent of diet composition, improves glycemic control; however, reducing SFA intake by replacing SFA with carbohydrate or MUFA reduces LDL maximally during weight loss and to a greater degree than has been shown in weight-stable studies.",
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Effect of energy restriction, weight loss, and diet composition on plasma lipids and glucose in patients with type 2 diabetes. / Heilbronn, Leonie K.; Noakes, Manny; Clifton, Peter M.

In: Diabetes Care, Vol. 22, No. 6, 01.06.1999, p. 889-895.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

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T1 - Effect of energy restriction, weight loss, and diet composition on plasma lipids and glucose in patients with type 2 diabetes

AU - Heilbronn, Leonie K.

AU - Noakes, Manny

AU - Clifton, Peter M.

PY - 1999/6/1

Y1 - 1999/6/1

N2 - OBJECTIVE - To determine the optimal diet for improving glucose and lipid profiles in obese patients with type 2 diabetes during moderate energy restriction. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS - A total of 35 free-living obese patients with type 2 diabetes were assigned to one of three 1,600 kcal/day diets for 12 weeks. The diets were high carbohydrate (10% fat, 4% saturated), high monounsaturated fat (MUFA) (32% fat, 7% saturated), or high saturated fat (SFA) (32% fat, 17% saturated). RESULTS - Diet composition did not affect the magnitude of weight loss, with subjects losing an average of 6.6 ± 0.9 kg. Energy restriction and weight loss resulted in reductions in fasting plasma glucose (-14%), insulin (-27%), GHb (-14%), and systolic (-7%) and diastolic blood pressure (-10%) levels and the glucose response area (-17%) independent of diet composition. Diet composition did affect the lipoprotein profile. LDL was 10% and 17% lower with the high-carbohydrate and high-MUFA diets, respectively, whereas no change was observed with the high-SFA diet (P < 0.001 for effect of diet). HDL was transiently reduced on the high- carbohydrate diet at weeks 1, 4, and 8, whereas higher fat consumption maintained these levels. The total cholesterol:HDL ratio, although significantly reduced on the high-MUFA diet (P < 0.01), was not different from the other two diets after adjustment for baseline differences. CONCLUSIONS - Energy restriction, independent of diet composition, improves glycemic control; however, reducing SFA intake by replacing SFA with carbohydrate or MUFA reduces LDL maximally during weight loss and to a greater degree than has been shown in weight-stable studies.

AB - OBJECTIVE - To determine the optimal diet for improving glucose and lipid profiles in obese patients with type 2 diabetes during moderate energy restriction. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS - A total of 35 free-living obese patients with type 2 diabetes were assigned to one of three 1,600 kcal/day diets for 12 weeks. The diets were high carbohydrate (10% fat, 4% saturated), high monounsaturated fat (MUFA) (32% fat, 7% saturated), or high saturated fat (SFA) (32% fat, 17% saturated). RESULTS - Diet composition did not affect the magnitude of weight loss, with subjects losing an average of 6.6 ± 0.9 kg. Energy restriction and weight loss resulted in reductions in fasting plasma glucose (-14%), insulin (-27%), GHb (-14%), and systolic (-7%) and diastolic blood pressure (-10%) levels and the glucose response area (-17%) independent of diet composition. Diet composition did affect the lipoprotein profile. LDL was 10% and 17% lower with the high-carbohydrate and high-MUFA diets, respectively, whereas no change was observed with the high-SFA diet (P < 0.001 for effect of diet). HDL was transiently reduced on the high- carbohydrate diet at weeks 1, 4, and 8, whereas higher fat consumption maintained these levels. The total cholesterol:HDL ratio, although significantly reduced on the high-MUFA diet (P < 0.01), was not different from the other two diets after adjustment for baseline differences. CONCLUSIONS - Energy restriction, independent of diet composition, improves glycemic control; however, reducing SFA intake by replacing SFA with carbohydrate or MUFA reduces LDL maximally during weight loss and to a greater degree than has been shown in weight-stable studies.

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DO - 10.2337/diacare.22.6.889

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T2 - Diabetes Care

JF - Diabetes Care

SN - 0149-5992

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