Effect of energy restriction, weight loss, and diet composition on plasma lipids and glucose in patients with type 2 diabetes

Leonie K. Heilbronn, Manny Noakes, Peter M. Clifton

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

129 Citations (Scopus)


OBJECTIVE - To determine the optimal diet for improving glucose and lipid profiles in obese patients with type 2 diabetes during moderate energy restriction. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS - A total of 35 free-living obese patients with type 2 diabetes were assigned to one of three 1,600 kcal/day diets for 12 weeks. The diets were high carbohydrate (10% fat, 4% saturated), high monounsaturated fat (MUFA) (32% fat, 7% saturated), or high saturated fat (SFA) (32% fat, 17% saturated). RESULTS - Diet composition did not affect the magnitude of weight loss, with subjects losing an average of 6.6 ± 0.9 kg. Energy restriction and weight loss resulted in reductions in fasting plasma glucose (-14%), insulin (-27%), GHb (-14%), and systolic (-7%) and diastolic blood pressure (-10%) levels and the glucose response area (-17%) independent of diet composition. Diet composition did affect the lipoprotein profile. LDL was 10% and 17% lower with the high-carbohydrate and high-MUFA diets, respectively, whereas no change was observed with the high-SFA diet (P < 0.001 for effect of diet). HDL was transiently reduced on the high- carbohydrate diet at weeks 1, 4, and 8, whereas higher fat consumption maintained these levels. The total cholesterol:HDL ratio, although significantly reduced on the high-MUFA diet (P < 0.01), was not different from the other two diets after adjustment for baseline differences. CONCLUSIONS - Energy restriction, independent of diet composition, improves glycemic control; however, reducing SFA intake by replacing SFA with carbohydrate or MUFA reduces LDL maximally during weight loss and to a greater degree than has been shown in weight-stable studies.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)889-895
Number of pages7
JournalDiabetes Care
Issue number6
Publication statusPublished - 1 Jun 1999

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Internal Medicine
  • Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism
  • Advanced and Specialised Nursing

Cite this