Does the Rate of Distraction or Type of Distractor Affect the Outcome of Mandibular Distraction in Children With Micrognathia?

Omar Breik, David Tivey, Kandiah Umapathysivam, Peter Anderson

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

11 Citations (Scopus)


Purpose A variety of surgical protocols are available in the literature for performing mandibular distraction. This study aims to determine the ideal rate of distraction and compare outcomes between internal and external distractors in children and infants with upper airway obstruction due to micrognathia. Patients and Methods A systematic review was performed. The databases searched included PubMed, Embase, Scopus, Web of Knowledge, and gray-literature sources. The intervention was bilateral mandibular distraction for upper airway obstruction in children with clinical evidence of micrognathia or Pierre Robin sequence. The variables for comparison included distraction rates of 1 mm/d and 2 mm/d and external versus internal distractors. The outcome was successful completion of distraction. Complications also were recorded and compared. The data were analyzed by cross tabulation to calculate odds ratios. Results Overall, 43 studies were included in the surgical outcomes analysis. The overall success rate of distraction was 95.4%. There was no statistically significant difference in success rate with distraction at 1 mm/d or 2 mm/d (P =.18). Distraction at 1 mm/d was associated with a higher rate of technical failures. External distractors had a higher failure rate than internal distractors (P =.012). Internal distractors had a lower rate of significant scarring (P =.006) and had a lower incidence of technical failures (P =.039). Conclusions In children younger than 12 months, distraction at a rate of 2 mm/d is safe and appears to have a similar success rate to distraction at 1 mm/d. Internal distractors have a higher success rate than external distractors and should be used when possible.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1441-1453
Number of pages13
JournalJournal of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery
Issue number7
Publication statusPublished or Issued - 1 Jul 2016
Externally publishedYes

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Surgery
  • Oral Surgery
  • Otorhinolaryngology

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