Dietary effects on plasma glycerophospholipids

Olaf Uhl, Christian Hellmuth, Hans Demmelmair, Shao J. Zhou, Maria Makrides, Colin Prosser, Dianne Lowry, Robert A. Gibson, Berthold Koletzko

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

5 Citations (Scopus)


Objective: Human milk provides a complex mixture of animal lipids, whereas the fat supply of most modern infant formula is based on vegetable oils. We studied the effects of breast-feeding and of feeding infant formula either without or with dairy goat lipids on the composition of infant plasma glycerophospholipids. Methods: Healthy-Term infants were randomized double blind to feeding with infant formula based on whole goats' milk (GIF, approximately 60% milk fat and 40% vegetable oils) or a control cows' milk infant formula based on vegetable oils (VIF) from 2 weeks after birth. A reference group of fully breast-fed infants was also followed. At the age 4 months, blood samples were collected and plasma glycerophospholipids were analyzed with liquid chromatography coupled to triple quadrupole mass spectrometry. Results: The group of breast-fed infants showed significantly higher contents of glycerophospholipid species containing sn-2 palmitic acid [PC(16:0/16:0) and PC(18:0/16:0)] and significantly higher contents of glycerophospholipid species containing long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids than infants in both formula groups. The GIF group demonstrated significantly higher glycerophospholipid species containing myristic acid [LPC(14:0), PC(14:0/18:1), PC(16:0/14:0)] and palmitoleic acid [LPC(16:1), PC(16:0/16:1), and PC(16:1/18:1)] than the VIF group. Conclusions: We conclude that breast-feeding induces marked differences in infant plasma glycerophospholipid profiles compared with formula feeding, whereas the studied different sources of formula fat resulted in limited effects on plasma glycerophospholipids.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)367-372
Number of pages6
JournalJournal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition
Issue number3
Publication statusPublished - 1 Sep 2015


  • Glycerophospholipids
  • Infant formula
  • Long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids
  • Palmitoleic acid

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Pediatrics, Perinatology, and Child Health
  • Gastroenterology

Cite this

Uhl, O., Hellmuth, C., Demmelmair, H., Zhou, S. J., Makrides, M., Prosser, C., ... Koletzko, B. (2015). Dietary effects on plasma glycerophospholipids. Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition, 61(3), 367-372.