Despite mandatory fortification of staple foods, vitamin D intakes of Canadian children and adults are inadequate

Hassanali Vatanparast, Mona S. Calvo, Timothy J. Green, Susan J. Whiting

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

91 Citations (Scopus)


Vitamin D is largely obtained through sun-induced skin synthesis and less from dietary sources, but during Canadian winters, skin synthesis is non-existent. The objective of this study was to estimate vitamin D intakes in Canadians from food sources. Data used in this study included food intakes of Canadians reported in the 2004 Canadian Community Health Survey Cycle 2.2 (CCHS 2.2), a nationally representative sample of 34,789 persons over the age of 1 year. The mean ± SD dietary intake of vitamin D from food of Canadians was 5.8 ± 0.1 μg/day, with males 9-18 years having the highest mean intakes (7.5 ± 0.2 μg/day) and females 51-70 years having the lowest intakes (5.2 ± 0.3 μg/day). Males in all age groups had higher intakes than females and White Canadians had higher vitamin D intakes than Non-Whites in most age sex groups. Milk products contributed 49% of dietary vitamin D followed by meat and meat-alternatives (31.1%). The majority of Canadians consume less than current recommended intake of vitamin D from food. Consideration should be given to strategies to improve vitamin D intake of Canadians by increasing both the amount of vitamin D added to foods and range of foods eligible for fortification.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)301-303
Number of pages3
JournalJournal of Steroid Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
Issue number1-2
Publication statusPublished - Jul 2010


  • Canada
  • Dietary intake
  • Food sources
  • Vitamin D

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism
  • Biochemistry
  • Molecular Medicine
  • Molecular Biology
  • Endocrinology
  • Clinical Biochemistry
  • Cell Biology

Cite this