Daily supplementation with 15 mg vitamin D2 compared with vitamin D3 to increase wintertime 25-hydroxyvitamin D status in healthy South Asian and white European women: A 12-wk randomized, placebo-controlled food-fortification trial

Laura Tripkovic, Louise R. Wilson, Kathryn Hart, Sig Johnsen, Simon De Lusignan, Colin P. Smith, Giselda Bucca, Simon Penson, Gemma Chope, Ruan Elliott, Elina Hypponen, Jacqueline L. Berry, Susan A. Lanham-New

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

19 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Background: There are conflicting views in the literature as to whether Vitamin D 2 and Vitamin D 3 are equally effective in increasing and maintaining serum concentrations of 25-hydroxyVitamin D [25(OH)D], particularly at lower doses of Vitamin D. Objective: We aimed to investigate whether Vitamin D 2 or Vitamin D 3 fortified in juice or food, at a relatively low dose of 15 μg/d, was effective in increasing serum total 25(OH)D and to compare their respective efficacy in South Asian and white European women over the winter months within the setting of a large randomized controlled trial. Design: A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled foodfortification trial was conducted in healthy South Asian and white European women aged 20-64 y (n = 335; Surrey, United Kingdom) who consumed placebo, juice supplemented with 15 μg Vitamin D2, biscuit supplemented with 15 μg Vitamin D 2 , juice supplemented with 15 μg Vitamin D3, or biscuit supplemented with 15 μg Vitamin D 3 daily for 12 wk. Serum 25(OH)D was measured by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry at baseline and at weeks 6 and 12 of the study. Results: Postintervention in the 2 ethnic groups combined, both the Vitamin D 3 biscuit and the Vitamin D 3 juice groups showed a significantly greater absolute incremental change (Δ) in total 25(OH)D when compared with the Vitamin D 2 biscuit group [Δ (95% CI): 15.3 nmol/L (7.4, 23.3 nmol/L) (P <0.0003) and 16.0 nmol/L (8.0, 23.9 nmol/L) ( P <0.0001)], the Vitamin D 2 juice group [Δ (95% CI): 16.3 nmol/L (8.4, 24.2 nmol/L) (P <0.0001) and 16.9 nmol/L (9.0, 24.8 nmol/L) (P <0.0001)], and the placebo group [Δ (95% CI): 42.3 nmol/L (34.4, 50.2 nmol/L) (P <0.0001) and 42.9 nmol/L (35.0, 50.8 nmol/L) (P <0.0002)]. Conclusions: With the use of a daily dose of Vitamin D relevant to public health recommendations (15 μg) and in vehicles relevant to food-fortification strategies, Vitamin D 3 was more effective than Vitamin D 2 in increasing serum 25(OH)D in the wintertime. Vitamin D 3 may therefore be a preferential form to optimize Vitamin D status within the general population.

LanguageEnglish
Pages481-490
Number of pages10
JournalAmerican Journal of Clinical Nutrition
Volume106
Issue number2
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 1 Aug 2017

Keywords

  • 25-hydroxyVitamin D
  • Food fortification
  • Healthy women
  • Randomized controlled trial
  • South Asian
  • Vitamin D
  • White European

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Medicine (miscellaneous)
  • Nutrition and Dietetics

Cite this

Tripkovic, Laura ; Wilson, Louise R. ; Hart, Kathryn ; Johnsen, Sig ; De Lusignan, Simon ; Smith, Colin P. ; Bucca, Giselda ; Penson, Simon ; Chope, Gemma ; Elliott, Ruan ; Hypponen, Elina ; Berry, Jacqueline L. ; Lanham-New, Susan A. / Daily supplementation with 15 mg vitamin D2 compared with vitamin D3 to increase wintertime 25-hydroxyvitamin D status in healthy South Asian and white European women : A 12-wk randomized, placebo-controlled food-fortification trial. In: American Journal of Clinical Nutrition. 2017 ; Vol. 106, No. 2. pp. 481-490.
@article{dca7119880e74caf9acc502f759428e2,
title = "Daily supplementation with 15 mg vitamin D2 compared with vitamin D3 to increase wintertime 25-hydroxyvitamin D status in healthy South Asian and white European women: A 12-wk randomized, placebo-controlled food-fortification trial",
abstract = "Background: There are conflicting views in the literature as to whether Vitamin D 2 and Vitamin D 3 are equally effective in increasing and maintaining serum concentrations of 25-hydroxyVitamin D [25(OH)D], particularly at lower doses of Vitamin D. Objective: We aimed to investigate whether Vitamin D 2 or Vitamin D 3 fortified in juice or food, at a relatively low dose of 15 μg/d, was effective in increasing serum total 25(OH)D and to compare their respective efficacy in South Asian and white European women over the winter months within the setting of a large randomized controlled trial. Design: A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled foodfortification trial was conducted in healthy South Asian and white European women aged 20-64 y (n = 335; Surrey, United Kingdom) who consumed placebo, juice supplemented with 15 μg Vitamin D2, biscuit supplemented with 15 μg Vitamin D 2 , juice supplemented with 15 μg Vitamin D3, or biscuit supplemented with 15 μg Vitamin D 3 daily for 12 wk. Serum 25(OH)D was measured by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry at baseline and at weeks 6 and 12 of the study. Results: Postintervention in the 2 ethnic groups combined, both the Vitamin D 3 biscuit and the Vitamin D 3 juice groups showed a significantly greater absolute incremental change (Δ) in total 25(OH)D when compared with the Vitamin D 2 biscuit group [Δ (95{\%} CI): 15.3 nmol/L (7.4, 23.3 nmol/L) (P <0.0003) and 16.0 nmol/L (8.0, 23.9 nmol/L) ( P <0.0001)], the Vitamin D 2 juice group [Δ (95{\%} CI): 16.3 nmol/L (8.4, 24.2 nmol/L) (P <0.0001) and 16.9 nmol/L (9.0, 24.8 nmol/L) (P <0.0001)], and the placebo group [Δ (95{\%} CI): 42.3 nmol/L (34.4, 50.2 nmol/L) (P <0.0001) and 42.9 nmol/L (35.0, 50.8 nmol/L) (P <0.0002)]. Conclusions: With the use of a daily dose of Vitamin D relevant to public health recommendations (15 μg) and in vehicles relevant to food-fortification strategies, Vitamin D 3 was more effective than Vitamin D 2 in increasing serum 25(OH)D in the wintertime. Vitamin D 3 may therefore be a preferential form to optimize Vitamin D status within the general population.",
keywords = "25-hydroxyVitamin D, Food fortification, Healthy women, Randomized controlled trial, South Asian, Vitamin D, White European",
author = "Laura Tripkovic and Wilson, {Louise R.} and Kathryn Hart and Sig Johnsen and {De Lusignan}, Simon and Smith, {Colin P.} and Giselda Bucca and Simon Penson and Gemma Chope and Ruan Elliott and Elina Hypponen and Berry, {Jacqueline L.} and Lanham-New, {Susan A.}",
year = "2017",
month = "8",
day = "1",
doi = "10.3945/ajcn.116.138693",
language = "English",
volume = "106",
pages = "481--490",
journal = "American Journal of Clinical Nutrition",
issn = "0002-9165",
publisher = "American Society for Nutrition",
number = "2",

}

Daily supplementation with 15 mg vitamin D2 compared with vitamin D3 to increase wintertime 25-hydroxyvitamin D status in healthy South Asian and white European women : A 12-wk randomized, placebo-controlled food-fortification trial. / Tripkovic, Laura; Wilson, Louise R.; Hart, Kathryn; Johnsen, Sig; De Lusignan, Simon; Smith, Colin P.; Bucca, Giselda; Penson, Simon; Chope, Gemma; Elliott, Ruan; Hypponen, Elina; Berry, Jacqueline L.; Lanham-New, Susan A.

In: American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, Vol. 106, No. 2, 01.08.2017, p. 481-490.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

TY - JOUR

T1 - Daily supplementation with 15 mg vitamin D2 compared with vitamin D3 to increase wintertime 25-hydroxyvitamin D status in healthy South Asian and white European women

T2 - American Journal of Clinical Nutrition

AU - Tripkovic, Laura

AU - Wilson, Louise R.

AU - Hart, Kathryn

AU - Johnsen, Sig

AU - De Lusignan, Simon

AU - Smith, Colin P.

AU - Bucca, Giselda

AU - Penson, Simon

AU - Chope, Gemma

AU - Elliott, Ruan

AU - Hypponen, Elina

AU - Berry, Jacqueline L.

AU - Lanham-New, Susan A.

PY - 2017/8/1

Y1 - 2017/8/1

N2 - Background: There are conflicting views in the literature as to whether Vitamin D 2 and Vitamin D 3 are equally effective in increasing and maintaining serum concentrations of 25-hydroxyVitamin D [25(OH)D], particularly at lower doses of Vitamin D. Objective: We aimed to investigate whether Vitamin D 2 or Vitamin D 3 fortified in juice or food, at a relatively low dose of 15 μg/d, was effective in increasing serum total 25(OH)D and to compare their respective efficacy in South Asian and white European women over the winter months within the setting of a large randomized controlled trial. Design: A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled foodfortification trial was conducted in healthy South Asian and white European women aged 20-64 y (n = 335; Surrey, United Kingdom) who consumed placebo, juice supplemented with 15 μg Vitamin D2, biscuit supplemented with 15 μg Vitamin D 2 , juice supplemented with 15 μg Vitamin D3, or biscuit supplemented with 15 μg Vitamin D 3 daily for 12 wk. Serum 25(OH)D was measured by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry at baseline and at weeks 6 and 12 of the study. Results: Postintervention in the 2 ethnic groups combined, both the Vitamin D 3 biscuit and the Vitamin D 3 juice groups showed a significantly greater absolute incremental change (Δ) in total 25(OH)D when compared with the Vitamin D 2 biscuit group [Δ (95% CI): 15.3 nmol/L (7.4, 23.3 nmol/L) (P <0.0003) and 16.0 nmol/L (8.0, 23.9 nmol/L) ( P <0.0001)], the Vitamin D 2 juice group [Δ (95% CI): 16.3 nmol/L (8.4, 24.2 nmol/L) (P <0.0001) and 16.9 nmol/L (9.0, 24.8 nmol/L) (P <0.0001)], and the placebo group [Δ (95% CI): 42.3 nmol/L (34.4, 50.2 nmol/L) (P <0.0001) and 42.9 nmol/L (35.0, 50.8 nmol/L) (P <0.0002)]. Conclusions: With the use of a daily dose of Vitamin D relevant to public health recommendations (15 μg) and in vehicles relevant to food-fortification strategies, Vitamin D 3 was more effective than Vitamin D 2 in increasing serum 25(OH)D in the wintertime. Vitamin D 3 may therefore be a preferential form to optimize Vitamin D status within the general population.

AB - Background: There are conflicting views in the literature as to whether Vitamin D 2 and Vitamin D 3 are equally effective in increasing and maintaining serum concentrations of 25-hydroxyVitamin D [25(OH)D], particularly at lower doses of Vitamin D. Objective: We aimed to investigate whether Vitamin D 2 or Vitamin D 3 fortified in juice or food, at a relatively low dose of 15 μg/d, was effective in increasing serum total 25(OH)D and to compare their respective efficacy in South Asian and white European women over the winter months within the setting of a large randomized controlled trial. Design: A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled foodfortification trial was conducted in healthy South Asian and white European women aged 20-64 y (n = 335; Surrey, United Kingdom) who consumed placebo, juice supplemented with 15 μg Vitamin D2, biscuit supplemented with 15 μg Vitamin D 2 , juice supplemented with 15 μg Vitamin D3, or biscuit supplemented with 15 μg Vitamin D 3 daily for 12 wk. Serum 25(OH)D was measured by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry at baseline and at weeks 6 and 12 of the study. Results: Postintervention in the 2 ethnic groups combined, both the Vitamin D 3 biscuit and the Vitamin D 3 juice groups showed a significantly greater absolute incremental change (Δ) in total 25(OH)D when compared with the Vitamin D 2 biscuit group [Δ (95% CI): 15.3 nmol/L (7.4, 23.3 nmol/L) (P <0.0003) and 16.0 nmol/L (8.0, 23.9 nmol/L) ( P <0.0001)], the Vitamin D 2 juice group [Δ (95% CI): 16.3 nmol/L (8.4, 24.2 nmol/L) (P <0.0001) and 16.9 nmol/L (9.0, 24.8 nmol/L) (P <0.0001)], and the placebo group [Δ (95% CI): 42.3 nmol/L (34.4, 50.2 nmol/L) (P <0.0001) and 42.9 nmol/L (35.0, 50.8 nmol/L) (P <0.0002)]. Conclusions: With the use of a daily dose of Vitamin D relevant to public health recommendations (15 μg) and in vehicles relevant to food-fortification strategies, Vitamin D 3 was more effective than Vitamin D 2 in increasing serum 25(OH)D in the wintertime. Vitamin D 3 may therefore be a preferential form to optimize Vitamin D status within the general population.

KW - 25-hydroxyVitamin D

KW - Food fortification

KW - Healthy women

KW - Randomized controlled trial

KW - South Asian

KW - Vitamin D

KW - White European

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=85026630134&partnerID=8YFLogxK

U2 - 10.3945/ajcn.116.138693

DO - 10.3945/ajcn.116.138693

M3 - Article

VL - 106

SP - 481

EP - 490

JO - American Journal of Clinical Nutrition

JF - American Journal of Clinical Nutrition

SN - 0002-9165

IS - 2

ER -