Coronary atheroma progression rates in men and women following high-intensity statin therapy: A pooled analysis of REVERSAL, ASTEROID and SATURN

Brian Stegman, Mingyuan Shao, Stephen J. Nicholls, Mohamed Elshazly, Leslie Cho, Peta King, Samir Kapadia, Murat Tuzcu, Steven E. Nissen, Rishi Puri

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Abstract

Background and aims High-intensity statin therapy (HIST) reduces cardiovascular events, however, sex-related differences in treatment effects are not well characterized. Methods A patient-level post hoc pooled analysis of 3 randomized trials utilizing serial coronary intravascular ultrasound was undertaken, testing the anti-atherosclerotic effects of HIST in coronary disease patients. Sex-related differences in changes (Δ) in coronary percent atheroma volume (PAV) were ascertained following 18–24 months of HIST (atorvastatin 80 mg or rosuvastatin 40 mg daily), and further characterized according to on-treatment lipid and lipoprotein levels. Results In women (n = 451) compared with men (n = 1190), on-treatment levels of LDL-C (68 ± 24 vs. 67 ± 22 mg/dl, p=0.62) and apoB (77 ± 23 vs. 76 ± 20 mg/dL, p=0.51) were similar; levels of HDL-C (53 ± 12 vs. 47 ± 11 mg/dl, p < 0.001), apoA1 (154 ± 26 vs. 140 ± 24 mg/dl, p < 0.001), triglycerides [122 (95, 158) vs. 114 (89, 154) mg/dl, p=0.012] and CRP [1.7 (0.9, 3.8) vs. 1.1 (0.6, 2.7) mg/l, p < 0.001] were higher; while the total cholesterol/HDL-C (TC/HDL-C) ratio was lower (2.9 ± 0.8 vs. 3.1 ± 0.8, p < 0.001). Compared with men, women harbored significantly lower baseline PAV (34.8 ± 8.7 vs. 38.3 ± 8.8%, p < 0.001), yet demonstrated significantly greater PAV regression (ΔPAV -1.07 ± 0.26 vs. -0.66 ± 0.23%, p=0.02). When achieved on-treatment levels of LDL-C were <64 mg/dl, apoB <73 mg/dl, non-HDL-C <88.8 mg/dl, and TC/HDL-C <2.99, women demonstrated significantly greater PAV regression than men. Multivariable analysis revealed female sex to independently associate with PAV regression (coefficient −0.66, p=0.02). Conclusions Women demonstrate greater degrees of coronary plaque regression compared with men following long-term HIST, especially in the setting of lower achieved atherogenic lipoprotein levels.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)78-84
Number of pages7
JournalAtherosclerosis
Volume254
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 1 Nov 2016

Keywords

  • Atherosclerosis
  • Cholesterol
  • Coronary artery disease
  • Lipids
  • Ultrasound
  • Women

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine

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