Comparison of two low-fat diets, differing in protein and carbohydrate, on psychological wellbeing in adults with obesity and type 2 diabetes: A randomised clinical trial

Nerylee Ann Watson, Kathryn Ann Dyer, Jonathan David Buckley, Grant David Brinkworth, Alison Mary Coates, Gaynor Parfitt, Peter Ranald Charles Howe, Manny Noakes, Karen Joy Murphy

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

1 Citation (Scopus)

Abstract

Background: Although higher-protein diets (HP) can assist with weight loss and glycemic control, their effect on psychological wellbeing has not been established. The objective of this study was to compare the effects of a HP and a higher-carbohydrate diet (HC), combined with regular exercise, on psychological wellbeing both during weight loss (WL) and weight maintenance phases (WM). Methods: In a parallel RCT, 61 adults with T2D (mean ± SD: BMI 34.3 ± 5.1 kg/m 2 , aged 55 ± 8 years) consumed a HP diet (29% protein, 34% carbohydrate, 31% fat) or an isocaloric HC diet (21%:48%:24%), with moderate intensity exercise, for 12 weeks of WL and 12 weeks of WM. Secondary data evaluating psychological wellbeing was assessed using: Problems Areas in Diabetes (PAID); Diabetes-39 Quality of Life (D-39); Short Form Health Survey (SF-36); Perceived Stress Scale-10 (PSS-10) and the Leeds Sleep Evaluation Questionnaire (LSEQ) at Weeks 0, 12 and 24 and evaluated with mixed models analysis. Results: Independent of diet, improvements for PAID; D-39 diabetes control; D-39 severity of diabetes; SF-36 physical functioning and SF-36 general health were found following WL (d = 0.30 to 0.69, P ≤ 0.04 for all) which remained after 12 weeks of WM. SF-36 vitality improved more in the HP group (group x time interaction P = 0.03). Associations were seen between HbA1c and D-39 severity of diabetes rating (r = 0.30, P = 0.01) and SF-36 mental health (r = - 0.32, P = 0.003) and between weight loss and PAID (r = 0.30, P = 0.01). Conclusion: Several improvements in diabetes-related and general psychological wellbeing were seen similarly for both diets following weight loss and a reduction in HbA1c with most of these improvements remaining when weight loss was sustained for 12 weeks. A HP diet may provide additional increases in vitality. Trial registration: The trial was prospectively registered with the Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry (ACTRN 12613000008729) on 4 January 2013.

LanguageEnglish
Article number62
JournalNutrition journal
Volume17
Issue number1
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 15 Jun 2018

Keywords

  • Dietary protein
  • Emotional distress
  • Psychological wellbeing
  • Quality of life
  • Type 2 diabetes
  • Weight loss
  • Weight maintenance

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Medicine (miscellaneous)
  • Nutrition and Dietetics

Cite this

Watson, Nerylee Ann ; Dyer, Kathryn Ann ; Buckley, Jonathan David ; Brinkworth, Grant David ; Coates, Alison Mary ; Parfitt, Gaynor ; Howe, Peter Ranald Charles ; Noakes, Manny ; Murphy, Karen Joy. / Comparison of two low-fat diets, differing in protein and carbohydrate, on psychological wellbeing in adults with obesity and type 2 diabetes : A randomised clinical trial. In: Nutrition journal. 2018 ; Vol. 17, No. 1.
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title = "Comparison of two low-fat diets, differing in protein and carbohydrate, on psychological wellbeing in adults with obesity and type 2 diabetes: A randomised clinical trial",
abstract = "Background: Although higher-protein diets (HP) can assist with weight loss and glycemic control, their effect on psychological wellbeing has not been established. The objective of this study was to compare the effects of a HP and a higher-carbohydrate diet (HC), combined with regular exercise, on psychological wellbeing both during weight loss (WL) and weight maintenance phases (WM). Methods: In a parallel RCT, 61 adults with T2D (mean ± SD: BMI 34.3 ± 5.1 kg/m 2 , aged 55 ± 8 years) consumed a HP diet (29{\%} protein, 34{\%} carbohydrate, 31{\%} fat) or an isocaloric HC diet (21{\%}:48{\%}:24{\%}), with moderate intensity exercise, for 12 weeks of WL and 12 weeks of WM. Secondary data evaluating psychological wellbeing was assessed using: Problems Areas in Diabetes (PAID); Diabetes-39 Quality of Life (D-39); Short Form Health Survey (SF-36); Perceived Stress Scale-10 (PSS-10) and the Leeds Sleep Evaluation Questionnaire (LSEQ) at Weeks 0, 12 and 24 and evaluated with mixed models analysis. Results: Independent of diet, improvements for PAID; D-39 diabetes control; D-39 severity of diabetes; SF-36 physical functioning and SF-36 general health were found following WL (d = 0.30 to 0.69, P ≤ 0.04 for all) which remained after 12 weeks of WM. SF-36 vitality improved more in the HP group (group x time interaction P = 0.03). Associations were seen between HbA1c and D-39 severity of diabetes rating (r = 0.30, P = 0.01) and SF-36 mental health (r = - 0.32, P = 0.003) and between weight loss and PAID (r = 0.30, P = 0.01). Conclusion: Several improvements in diabetes-related and general psychological wellbeing were seen similarly for both diets following weight loss and a reduction in HbA1c with most of these improvements remaining when weight loss was sustained for 12 weeks. A HP diet may provide additional increases in vitality. Trial registration: The trial was prospectively registered with the Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry (ACTRN 12613000008729) on 4 January 2013.",
keywords = "Dietary protein, Emotional distress, Psychological wellbeing, Quality of life, Type 2 diabetes, Weight loss, Weight maintenance",
author = "Watson, {Nerylee Ann} and Dyer, {Kathryn Ann} and Buckley, {Jonathan David} and Brinkworth, {Grant David} and Coates, {Alison Mary} and Gaynor Parfitt and Howe, {Peter Ranald Charles} and Manny Noakes and Murphy, {Karen Joy}",
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Comparison of two low-fat diets, differing in protein and carbohydrate, on psychological wellbeing in adults with obesity and type 2 diabetes : A randomised clinical trial. / Watson, Nerylee Ann; Dyer, Kathryn Ann; Buckley, Jonathan David; Brinkworth, Grant David; Coates, Alison Mary; Parfitt, Gaynor; Howe, Peter Ranald Charles; Noakes, Manny; Murphy, Karen Joy.

In: Nutrition journal, Vol. 17, No. 1, 62, 15.06.2018.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

TY - JOUR

T1 - Comparison of two low-fat diets, differing in protein and carbohydrate, on psychological wellbeing in adults with obesity and type 2 diabetes

T2 - Nutrition Journal

AU - Watson, Nerylee Ann

AU - Dyer, Kathryn Ann

AU - Buckley, Jonathan David

AU - Brinkworth, Grant David

AU - Coates, Alison Mary

AU - Parfitt, Gaynor

AU - Howe, Peter Ranald Charles

AU - Noakes, Manny

AU - Murphy, Karen Joy

PY - 2018/6/15

Y1 - 2018/6/15

N2 - Background: Although higher-protein diets (HP) can assist with weight loss and glycemic control, their effect on psychological wellbeing has not been established. The objective of this study was to compare the effects of a HP and a higher-carbohydrate diet (HC), combined with regular exercise, on psychological wellbeing both during weight loss (WL) and weight maintenance phases (WM). Methods: In a parallel RCT, 61 adults with T2D (mean ± SD: BMI 34.3 ± 5.1 kg/m 2 , aged 55 ± 8 years) consumed a HP diet (29% protein, 34% carbohydrate, 31% fat) or an isocaloric HC diet (21%:48%:24%), with moderate intensity exercise, for 12 weeks of WL and 12 weeks of WM. Secondary data evaluating psychological wellbeing was assessed using: Problems Areas in Diabetes (PAID); Diabetes-39 Quality of Life (D-39); Short Form Health Survey (SF-36); Perceived Stress Scale-10 (PSS-10) and the Leeds Sleep Evaluation Questionnaire (LSEQ) at Weeks 0, 12 and 24 and evaluated with mixed models analysis. Results: Independent of diet, improvements for PAID; D-39 diabetes control; D-39 severity of diabetes; SF-36 physical functioning and SF-36 general health were found following WL (d = 0.30 to 0.69, P ≤ 0.04 for all) which remained after 12 weeks of WM. SF-36 vitality improved more in the HP group (group x time interaction P = 0.03). Associations were seen between HbA1c and D-39 severity of diabetes rating (r = 0.30, P = 0.01) and SF-36 mental health (r = - 0.32, P = 0.003) and between weight loss and PAID (r = 0.30, P = 0.01). Conclusion: Several improvements in diabetes-related and general psychological wellbeing were seen similarly for both diets following weight loss and a reduction in HbA1c with most of these improvements remaining when weight loss was sustained for 12 weeks. A HP diet may provide additional increases in vitality. Trial registration: The trial was prospectively registered with the Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry (ACTRN 12613000008729) on 4 January 2013.

AB - Background: Although higher-protein diets (HP) can assist with weight loss and glycemic control, their effect on psychological wellbeing has not been established. The objective of this study was to compare the effects of a HP and a higher-carbohydrate diet (HC), combined with regular exercise, on psychological wellbeing both during weight loss (WL) and weight maintenance phases (WM). Methods: In a parallel RCT, 61 adults with T2D (mean ± SD: BMI 34.3 ± 5.1 kg/m 2 , aged 55 ± 8 years) consumed a HP diet (29% protein, 34% carbohydrate, 31% fat) or an isocaloric HC diet (21%:48%:24%), with moderate intensity exercise, for 12 weeks of WL and 12 weeks of WM. Secondary data evaluating psychological wellbeing was assessed using: Problems Areas in Diabetes (PAID); Diabetes-39 Quality of Life (D-39); Short Form Health Survey (SF-36); Perceived Stress Scale-10 (PSS-10) and the Leeds Sleep Evaluation Questionnaire (LSEQ) at Weeks 0, 12 and 24 and evaluated with mixed models analysis. Results: Independent of diet, improvements for PAID; D-39 diabetes control; D-39 severity of diabetes; SF-36 physical functioning and SF-36 general health were found following WL (d = 0.30 to 0.69, P ≤ 0.04 for all) which remained after 12 weeks of WM. SF-36 vitality improved more in the HP group (group x time interaction P = 0.03). Associations were seen between HbA1c and D-39 severity of diabetes rating (r = 0.30, P = 0.01) and SF-36 mental health (r = - 0.32, P = 0.003) and between weight loss and PAID (r = 0.30, P = 0.01). Conclusion: Several improvements in diabetes-related and general psychological wellbeing were seen similarly for both diets following weight loss and a reduction in HbA1c with most of these improvements remaining when weight loss was sustained for 12 weeks. A HP diet may provide additional increases in vitality. Trial registration: The trial was prospectively registered with the Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry (ACTRN 12613000008729) on 4 January 2013.

KW - Dietary protein

KW - Emotional distress

KW - Psychological wellbeing

KW - Quality of life

KW - Type 2 diabetes

KW - Weight loss

KW - Weight maintenance

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DO - 10.1186/s12937-018-0367-5

M3 - Article

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JO - Nutrition Journal

JF - Nutrition Journal

SN - 1475-2891

IS - 1

M1 - 62

ER -