### Abstract

Treating elevated low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) to risk-stratified target levels is recommended in several guidelines. Thus, accurate estimation of LDL-C is required. LDL-C is typically calculated using the Friedewald equation: (total cholesterol) – (non-high-density lipoprotein cholesterol [non-HDL-C]) – (triglycerides [TGs]/5). As the equation uses a fixed value equal to 5 as a divisor for TGs, it does not account for inter-individual variability, often resulting in underestimation of risk and potentially undertreatment. It is specifically inapplicable in patients with fasting triglycerides ≥400 mg/dL. A novel method of LDL-C calculation was derived and validated by Martin et al.: (non-HDL-C) – (triglycerides/adjustable factor). This equation uses an adjustable factor, the median TG:very-low-density lipoprotein cholesterol ratio in strata defined by levels of TG and non-HDLC, as divisor for TGs, and the adjustable factor ranging from 3 to 12 has been shown to provide more accurate estimates of LDL-C compared with the Friedewald equation using a direct assay as the gold standard. We used 70,209 baseline and on-treatment lipid values from the VOYAGER meta-analysis database to determine the difference in calculated LDL-C values using the Friedewald and novel equations. In patients with TGs <400 mg/dL, LDL-C values calculated using the novel equation were plotted against those calculated using the Friedewald equation. The novel equation generally resulted in LDL-C values greater than the Friedewald calculation, with differences increasing with decreasing LDL-C levels; 23% of individuals who reached a LDL-C target of 70 mg/dL with the Friedewald equation did not achieve this target when the novel equation was used to calculate LDL-C; these figures were 8% and 2% for <100 mg/dL and < 130 mg/dL targets, respectively. In patients with triglycerides ≥400 mg/dL, in whom the Friedewald equation is not valid, lipid values calculated using the novel equation were compared with those obtained by β-quantification. Values calculated with the novel equation did not appear to be closely related with those calculated by β-quantification in these patients. In conclusion, the novel equation provides a higher estimation of exact LDL-C values than the Friedewald equation, particularly in patients with low LDL-C levels, which may result in undertreatment of some patients whose LDL-C was calculated using the Friedewald method. However, neither may be suitable for patients with TG ≥400 mg/dL.

Language | English |
---|---|

Pages | 24-29 |

Number of pages | 6 |

Journal | Clinical Biochemistry |

Volume | 64 |

DOIs | |

State | Published - 1 Feb 2019 |

### Keywords

- Friedewald
- Low-density lipoprotein cholesterol
- Non-high-density lipoprotein cholesterol
- Very-low-density lipoprotein cholesterol
- VOYAGER
- β-Quantification

### ASJC Scopus subject areas

- Clinical Biochemistry

### Cite this

*Clinical Biochemistry*,

*64*, 24-29. DOI: 10.1016/j.clinbiochem.2018.10.011

}

*Clinical Biochemistry*, vol 64, pp. 24-29. DOI: 10.1016/j.clinbiochem.2018.10.011

**Comparing a novel equation for calculating low-density lipoprotein cholesterol with the Friedewald equation : A VOYAGER analysis.** / Palmer, Michael K.; Barter, Philip J.; Lundman, Pia; Nicholls, Stephen J.; Toth, Peter P.; Karlson, Björn W.

Research output: Research - peer-review › Article

TY - JOUR

T1 - Comparing a novel equation for calculating low-density lipoprotein cholesterol with the Friedewald equation

T2 - Clinical Biochemistry

AU - Palmer,Michael K.

AU - Barter,Philip J.

AU - Lundman,Pia

AU - Nicholls,Stephen J.

AU - Toth,Peter P.

AU - Karlson,Björn W.

PY - 2019/2/1

Y1 - 2019/2/1

N2 - Treating elevated low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) to risk-stratified target levels is recommended in several guidelines. Thus, accurate estimation of LDL-C is required. LDL-C is typically calculated using the Friedewald equation: (total cholesterol) – (non-high-density lipoprotein cholesterol [non-HDL-C]) – (triglycerides [TGs]/5). As the equation uses a fixed value equal to 5 as a divisor for TGs, it does not account for inter-individual variability, often resulting in underestimation of risk and potentially undertreatment. It is specifically inapplicable in patients with fasting triglycerides ≥400 mg/dL. A novel method of LDL-C calculation was derived and validated by Martin et al.: (non-HDL-C) – (triglycerides/adjustable factor). This equation uses an adjustable factor, the median TG:very-low-density lipoprotein cholesterol ratio in strata defined by levels of TG and non-HDLC, as divisor for TGs, and the adjustable factor ranging from 3 to 12 has been shown to provide more accurate estimates of LDL-C compared with the Friedewald equation using a direct assay as the gold standard. We used 70,209 baseline and on-treatment lipid values from the VOYAGER meta-analysis database to determine the difference in calculated LDL-C values using the Friedewald and novel equations. In patients with TGs <400 mg/dL, LDL-C values calculated using the novel equation were plotted against those calculated using the Friedewald equation. The novel equation generally resulted in LDL-C values greater than the Friedewald calculation, with differences increasing with decreasing LDL-C levels; 23% of individuals who reached a LDL-C target of 70 mg/dL with the Friedewald equation did not achieve this target when the novel equation was used to calculate LDL-C; these figures were 8% and 2% for <100 mg/dL and < 130 mg/dL targets, respectively. In patients with triglycerides ≥400 mg/dL, in whom the Friedewald equation is not valid, lipid values calculated using the novel equation were compared with those obtained by β-quantification. Values calculated with the novel equation did not appear to be closely related with those calculated by β-quantification in these patients. In conclusion, the novel equation provides a higher estimation of exact LDL-C values than the Friedewald equation, particularly in patients with low LDL-C levels, which may result in undertreatment of some patients whose LDL-C was calculated using the Friedewald method. However, neither may be suitable for patients with TG ≥400 mg/dL.

AB - Treating elevated low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) to risk-stratified target levels is recommended in several guidelines. Thus, accurate estimation of LDL-C is required. LDL-C is typically calculated using the Friedewald equation: (total cholesterol) – (non-high-density lipoprotein cholesterol [non-HDL-C]) – (triglycerides [TGs]/5). As the equation uses a fixed value equal to 5 as a divisor for TGs, it does not account for inter-individual variability, often resulting in underestimation of risk and potentially undertreatment. It is specifically inapplicable in patients with fasting triglycerides ≥400 mg/dL. A novel method of LDL-C calculation was derived and validated by Martin et al.: (non-HDL-C) – (triglycerides/adjustable factor). This equation uses an adjustable factor, the median TG:very-low-density lipoprotein cholesterol ratio in strata defined by levels of TG and non-HDLC, as divisor for TGs, and the adjustable factor ranging from 3 to 12 has been shown to provide more accurate estimates of LDL-C compared with the Friedewald equation using a direct assay as the gold standard. We used 70,209 baseline and on-treatment lipid values from the VOYAGER meta-analysis database to determine the difference in calculated LDL-C values using the Friedewald and novel equations. In patients with TGs <400 mg/dL, LDL-C values calculated using the novel equation were plotted against those calculated using the Friedewald equation. The novel equation generally resulted in LDL-C values greater than the Friedewald calculation, with differences increasing with decreasing LDL-C levels; 23% of individuals who reached a LDL-C target of 70 mg/dL with the Friedewald equation did not achieve this target when the novel equation was used to calculate LDL-C; these figures were 8% and 2% for <100 mg/dL and < 130 mg/dL targets, respectively. In patients with triglycerides ≥400 mg/dL, in whom the Friedewald equation is not valid, lipid values calculated using the novel equation were compared with those obtained by β-quantification. Values calculated with the novel equation did not appear to be closely related with those calculated by β-quantification in these patients. In conclusion, the novel equation provides a higher estimation of exact LDL-C values than the Friedewald equation, particularly in patients with low LDL-C levels, which may result in undertreatment of some patients whose LDL-C was calculated using the Friedewald method. However, neither may be suitable for patients with TG ≥400 mg/dL.

KW - Friedewald

KW - Low-density lipoprotein cholesterol

KW - Non-high-density lipoprotein cholesterol

KW - Very-low-density lipoprotein cholesterol

KW - VOYAGER

KW - β-Quantification

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=85055906056&partnerID=8YFLogxK

U2 - 10.1016/j.clinbiochem.2018.10.011

DO - 10.1016/j.clinbiochem.2018.10.011

M3 - Article

VL - 64

SP - 24

EP - 29

JO - Clinical Biochemistry

JF - Clinical Biochemistry

SN - 0009-9120

ER -