Cholesterol-lowering effects of plant sterol esters differ in milk, yoghurt, bread and cereal

Peter M. Clifton, M. Noakes, D. Sullivan, N. Erichsen, D. Ross, G. Annison, A. Fassoulakis, M. Cehun, P. Nestel

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

141 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Objective: To measure the relative effects of each of four phytosterol ester-enriched low-fat foods (bread, breakfast cereal, milk and yoghurt) on serum lipids, plasma phytosterols and carotenoids. Design: Three research centres undertook a randomised, incomplete crossover, single-blind study consisting of four treatment periods of 3 weeks each, one of which was a control period. Each sterol-enriched test food provided 1.6g/day of phytosterols as sterol esters. Setting: General Community. Subjects: In all 58, free-living men and women with mean age (s.d.) 54 (8)y, moderately elevated plasma total cholesterol 6.2 (0.7) mmol/l and body mass index 26.2 (3.0) kg/m2. Main outcome measures: Serum lipids, plasma phytosterols and carotenoids. Results: Serum total and LDL cholesterol levels were significantly lowered by consumption of phytosterol-enriched foods: milk (8.7 and 15.9%) and yoghurt (5.6 and 8.6%). Serum LDL cholesterol levels fell significantly by 6.5% with bread and 5.4% with cereal. They were both significantly less efficacious than sterol-enriched milk (P<0.001). Plasma sitosterol increased by 17-23% and campesterol by 48-52% with phytosterol-enriched milk and bread. Lipid-adjusted β-carotene was lowered by 5-10% by sterols in bread and milk, respectively. Conclusions: This is the first study to demonstrate that cholesterol-lowering effects of plant sterol esters may differ according to the food matrix. Plant sterols in low-fat milk was almost three times more effective than in bread and cereal. Despite phytosterol-enriched cereal products resulting in lower serum cholesterol reductions compared to sterol-enriched milk, the detection of similar changes in plasma phytosterols demonstrated that such products still delivered and released phytosterols to the gut.

LanguageEnglish
Pages503-509
Number of pages7
JournalEuropean Journal of Clinical Nutrition
Volume58
Issue number3
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 1 Mar 2004

Keywords

  • Campesterol
  • Carotenoids
  • LDL cholesterol
  • Sitosterol

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Medicine (miscellaneous)
  • Nutrition and Dietetics

Cite this

Clifton, P. M., Noakes, M., Sullivan, D., Erichsen, N., Ross, D., Annison, G., ... Nestel, P. (2004). Cholesterol-lowering effects of plant sterol esters differ in milk, yoghurt, bread and cereal. European Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 58(3), 503-509. https://doi.org/10.1038/sj.ejcn.1601837
Clifton, Peter M. ; Noakes, M. ; Sullivan, D. ; Erichsen, N. ; Ross, D. ; Annison, G. ; Fassoulakis, A. ; Cehun, M. ; Nestel, P. / Cholesterol-lowering effects of plant sterol esters differ in milk, yoghurt, bread and cereal. In: European Journal of Clinical Nutrition. 2004 ; Vol. 58, No. 3. pp. 503-509.
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Clifton, PM, Noakes, M, Sullivan, D, Erichsen, N, Ross, D, Annison, G, Fassoulakis, A, Cehun, M & Nestel, P 2004, 'Cholesterol-lowering effects of plant sterol esters differ in milk, yoghurt, bread and cereal', European Journal of Clinical Nutrition, vol. 58, no. 3, pp. 503-509. https://doi.org/10.1038/sj.ejcn.1601837

Cholesterol-lowering effects of plant sterol esters differ in milk, yoghurt, bread and cereal. / Clifton, Peter M.; Noakes, M.; Sullivan, D.; Erichsen, N.; Ross, D.; Annison, G.; Fassoulakis, A.; Cehun, M.; Nestel, P.

In: European Journal of Clinical Nutrition, Vol. 58, No. 3, 01.03.2004, p. 503-509.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

TY - JOUR

T1 - Cholesterol-lowering effects of plant sterol esters differ in milk, yoghurt, bread and cereal

AU - Clifton, Peter M.

AU - Noakes, M.

AU - Sullivan, D.

AU - Erichsen, N.

AU - Ross, D.

AU - Annison, G.

AU - Fassoulakis, A.

AU - Cehun, M.

AU - Nestel, P.

PY - 2004/3/1

Y1 - 2004/3/1

N2 - Objective: To measure the relative effects of each of four phytosterol ester-enriched low-fat foods (bread, breakfast cereal, milk and yoghurt) on serum lipids, plasma phytosterols and carotenoids. Design: Three research centres undertook a randomised, incomplete crossover, single-blind study consisting of four treatment periods of 3 weeks each, one of which was a control period. Each sterol-enriched test food provided 1.6g/day of phytosterols as sterol esters. Setting: General Community. Subjects: In all 58, free-living men and women with mean age (s.d.) 54 (8)y, moderately elevated plasma total cholesterol 6.2 (0.7) mmol/l and body mass index 26.2 (3.0) kg/m2. Main outcome measures: Serum lipids, plasma phytosterols and carotenoids. Results: Serum total and LDL cholesterol levels were significantly lowered by consumption of phytosterol-enriched foods: milk (8.7 and 15.9%) and yoghurt (5.6 and 8.6%). Serum LDL cholesterol levels fell significantly by 6.5% with bread and 5.4% with cereal. They were both significantly less efficacious than sterol-enriched milk (P<0.001). Plasma sitosterol increased by 17-23% and campesterol by 48-52% with phytosterol-enriched milk and bread. Lipid-adjusted β-carotene was lowered by 5-10% by sterols in bread and milk, respectively. Conclusions: This is the first study to demonstrate that cholesterol-lowering effects of plant sterol esters may differ according to the food matrix. Plant sterols in low-fat milk was almost three times more effective than in bread and cereal. Despite phytosterol-enriched cereal products resulting in lower serum cholesterol reductions compared to sterol-enriched milk, the detection of similar changes in plasma phytosterols demonstrated that such products still delivered and released phytosterols to the gut.

AB - Objective: To measure the relative effects of each of four phytosterol ester-enriched low-fat foods (bread, breakfast cereal, milk and yoghurt) on serum lipids, plasma phytosterols and carotenoids. Design: Three research centres undertook a randomised, incomplete crossover, single-blind study consisting of four treatment periods of 3 weeks each, one of which was a control period. Each sterol-enriched test food provided 1.6g/day of phytosterols as sterol esters. Setting: General Community. Subjects: In all 58, free-living men and women with mean age (s.d.) 54 (8)y, moderately elevated plasma total cholesterol 6.2 (0.7) mmol/l and body mass index 26.2 (3.0) kg/m2. Main outcome measures: Serum lipids, plasma phytosterols and carotenoids. Results: Serum total and LDL cholesterol levels were significantly lowered by consumption of phytosterol-enriched foods: milk (8.7 and 15.9%) and yoghurt (5.6 and 8.6%). Serum LDL cholesterol levels fell significantly by 6.5% with bread and 5.4% with cereal. They were both significantly less efficacious than sterol-enriched milk (P<0.001). Plasma sitosterol increased by 17-23% and campesterol by 48-52% with phytosterol-enriched milk and bread. Lipid-adjusted β-carotene was lowered by 5-10% by sterols in bread and milk, respectively. Conclusions: This is the first study to demonstrate that cholesterol-lowering effects of plant sterol esters may differ according to the food matrix. Plant sterols in low-fat milk was almost three times more effective than in bread and cereal. Despite phytosterol-enriched cereal products resulting in lower serum cholesterol reductions compared to sterol-enriched milk, the detection of similar changes in plasma phytosterols demonstrated that such products still delivered and released phytosterols to the gut.

KW - Campesterol

KW - Carotenoids

KW - LDL cholesterol

KW - Sitosterol

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U2 - 10.1038/sj.ejcn.1601837

DO - 10.1038/sj.ejcn.1601837

M3 - Article

VL - 58

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EP - 509

JO - European Journal of Clinical Nutrition

T2 - European Journal of Clinical Nutrition

JF - European Journal of Clinical Nutrition

SN - 0954-3007

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