Body fat distribution is a determinant of the high-density lipoprotein response to dietary fat and cholesterol in women

P. M. Clifton, M. Abbey, M. Noakes, S. Beltrame, N. Rumbelow, P. J. Nestel

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29 Citations (Scopus)


We have conducted a dietary trial that addressed the factors influencing the variability in plasma lipids in response to dietary fat and cholesterol with a focus on the effects of gender and body fat distribution. Sixty-seven women and 53 men were selected so that overall men and women had a similar mean age, LDL cholesterol, and body mass index. After a 2-week low-fat period subjects were given to two liquid supplements for 3 weeks each, one that contained 31 to 40 g fat and 650 to 845 mg cholesterol, and one that was fat free. Measurements included plasma lipids and lipoproteins, glucose, insulin, hepatic triglyceride lipase activity, apolipoprotein E polymophisms, and three indexes of body fat (body mass index, waist girth, and waist-hip ratio). In response to dietary fat and cholesterol supplementation only the changes in HDL cholesterol, especially in HDL2, differed between the sexes. Although on univariate analysis lipoprotein changes were predicted by baseline lipoprotein levels, body mass index, waist girth, waist-hip ratio, hepatic triglyceride lipase activity, and insulin, multiple regression showed only waist-hip ratio to predict changes in HDL2 cholesterol in women and body mass index and baseline HDL2 cholesterol in men. Changes in LDL were predicted by baseline LDL cholesterol in women and apolipoprotein E phenotype and age in men. These studies explain much of the variability that individuals show a lipoprotein changes, especially in the more desirable changes in cholesterol transport in HDL2, in response to eating saturated fat and cholesterol.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1070-1078
Number of pages9
JournalArteriosclerosis, Thrombosis, and Vascular Biology
Issue number8
Publication statusPublished or Issued - 1995


  • body mass index
  • dietary response
  • fat distribution
  • insulin
  • lipase
  • lipoproteins

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine

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