Association between yogurt consumption and plasma soluble CD14 in two prospective cohorts of US adults

Xiao Luo, Jing Sui, Brenda M. Birmann, Kerry L. Ivey, Fred K. Tabung, You Wu, Wanshui Yang, Kana Wu, Shuji Ogino, Hongbo Liu, Edward L. Giovannucci, Xuehong Zhang

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Purpose: Although evidence suggests an inverse association between yogurt consumption and the risk of disorders, such as type 2 diabetes and certain cancers, the mechanisms remain poorly understood. We aimed to examine the association between yogurt consumption and concentrations of plasma soluble CD14, a marker of gut barrier dysfunction. Methods: We analyzed cross-sectional data from 632 women in the Nurses’ Health Study (1989–1990) and 444 men in the Health Professionals Follow-up Study (1993–1994) with soluble CD14 concentrations. We estimated yogurt consumption from food frequency questionnaires. We used multivariable-adjusted linear regression models to estimate the percentage difference (95% CI) of soluble CD14 concentrations by yogurt consumption. Results: Among men, higher consumption was associated with a lower soluble CD14 concentration (at least 2 cups/week vs. non-consumers; unadjusted % difference: − 7.6%; 95% CI − 13.0%, − 2.1%; Ptrend = 0.003). The inverse association was slightly attenuated following multivariable adjustment (% difference: − 5.8%; 95% CI − 11.0%, − 0.1%; Ptrend = 0.01). For the same comparison, yogurt consumption was inverse, but not statistically significant associated with soluble CD14 concentration in women (% difference: − 1.2%; 95% CI − 5.6%, 3.5%; Ptrend = 0.64). In stratified analyses, the inverse association between yogurt consumption and the concentrations of soluble CD14 was slightly stronger in men who consumed alcohol at least 20 g/day. Conclusions: Higher yogurt consumption was associated with lower soluble CD14 concentrations, especially in men. Our findings suggest the strengthening of gut barrier function as a plausible mechanism for the observed inverse associations of yogurt consumption with gastrointestinal diseases and disorders involving other systems.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)929-938
Number of pages10
JournalEuropean Journal of Nutrition
Issue number2
Publication statusPublished or Issued - Mar 2021


  • Bacterial translocation
  • Gut barrier function
  • Soluble CD14
  • Yogurt consumption

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Medicine (miscellaneous)
  • Nutrition and Dietetics

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