Intellectual disability (ID) is a neurodevelopmental condition that affects ~1% of the world population. In total 5−10% of ID cases are due to variants in genes located on the X chromosome. Recently, variants in OGT have been shown to co-segregate with X-linked intellectual disability (XLID) in multiple families. OGT encodes O-GlcNAc transferase (OGT), an essential enzyme that catalyses O-linked glycosylation with β-N-acetylglucosamine (O-GlcNAc) on serine/threonine residues of thousands of nuclear and cytosolic proteins. In this review, we compile the work from the last few years that clearly delineates a new syndromic form of ID, which we propose to classify as a novel Congenital Disorder of Glycosylation (OGT-CDG). We discuss potential hypotheses for the underpinning molecular mechanism(s) that provide impetus for future research studies geared towards informed interventions.
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