An increase in dietary carotenoids when consuming plant sterols or stanols is effective in maintaining plasma carotenoid concentrations

Manny Noakes, Peter Clifton, Fady Ntanios, William Shrapnel, Ian Record, Jenny McInerney

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

153 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Background: Plant-sterol-enriched spreads lower LDL cholesterol but may also lower lipid-standardized carotenoids. Objective: Our objective was to assess whether advice to consume specific daily amounts of foods high in carotenoids prevents a reduction in plasma carotenoid concentrations in subjects who consume plant sterol or stanol esters. Design: Forty-six hypercholesterolemic free-living subjects completed a 3-way, double-blind, randomized crossover comparison. Subjects consumed each of the following 3 spreads (25 g/d) for 3 wk: control-1 (sterol-free), sterol ester-1 (2.3 g plant sterol esters), and stanol ester-1 (2.5 g plant stanol esters). During the 3-wk interventions, subjects were advised to eat ≥5 servings of vegetables and fruit/d, of which ≥1 serving was to be carrots, sweet potatoes, pumpkins, tomatoes, apricots, spinach, or broccoli. Results: The dietary advice resulted in a 13% increase in plasma β-carotene in subjects who consumed control-1 (P = 0.04). The plasma β-carotene concentrations of subjects who consumed control-1 did not differ significantly from those of subjects who consumed stanol ester-1 or sterol ester-1. This result was achieved by an increase of one daily serving of high-carotenoid vegetables or fruit. LDL cholesterol decreased 7.7% and 9.5% after consumption of sterol ester-1 and stanol ester-1, respectively (P < 0.001 for both), and differences between the LDL-cholesterol values obtained were not significant. Conclusion: Dietary advice to consume an additional daily serving of a high-carotenoid vegetable or fruit when consuming spreads containing sterol or stanol esters maintains plasma carotenoid concentrations while lowering LDL-cholesterol concentrations significantly.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)79-86
Number of pages8
JournalAmerican Journal of Clinical Nutrition
Volume75
Issue number1
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 1 Jan 2002
Externally publishedYes

Keywords

  • Carotenoids
  • LDL cholesterol
  • Phytosterols
  • Plant stanols
  • Plant sterols

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Medicine (miscellaneous)
  • Nutrition and Dietetics

Cite this