Altering meal timing to improve cognitive performance during simulated nightshifts

Charlotte C. Gupta, Stephanie Centofanti, Jillian Dorrian, Alison Coates, Jacqueline M. Stepien, David Kennaway, Gary Wittert, Leonie Heilbronn, Peter Catcheside, Manny Noakes, Daniel Coro, Dilushi Chandrakumar, Siobhan Banks

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Abstract

Altering meal timing could improve cognition, alertness, and thus safety during the nightshift. This study investigated the differential impact of consuming a meal, snack, or not eating during the nightshift on cognitive performance (ANZCTR12615001107516). 39 healthy participants (59% male, age mean±SD: 24.5 ± 5.0y) completed a 7-day laboratory study and underwent four simulated nightshifts. Participants were randomly allocated to: Meal at Night (MN; n= 12), Snack at Night (SN; n = 13) or No Eating at Night (NE; n = 14). At 00:30 h, MN consumed a meal and SN consumed a snack (30% and 10% of 24 h energy intake respectively). NE did not eat during the nightshift. Macronutrient intake was constant across conditions. At 20:00 h, 22:30 h, 01:30 h, and 04:00 h, participants completed the 3-min Psychomotor Vigilance Task (PVT-B), 40-min driving simulator, post-drive PVT-B, subjective sleepiness scale, 2-choice Reaction Time task, and Running Memory task. Objective sleep was recorded for each of the day sleeps using Actigraphy and for the third day sleep, Polysomnography was used. Performance was compared between conditions using mixed model analyses. Significant two-way interactions were found. At 04:00 h, SN displayed increased time spent in the safe zone (p < .001; percentage of time spent within 10 km/h of the speed limit and 0.8 m of lane center), and decreases in speed variability (p < .001), lane variability (p < .001), post-drive PVT-B lapses (defined as RT > 355 ms; p < .001), and reaction time on the 2-choice reaction time task (p < .001) and running memory task (p < .001) compared to MN and NE. MN reported greater subjective sleepiness at 04:00 h (p < .001) compared to SN and NE. There was no difference in objective sleep between eating conditions. Eating a large meal during the nightshift impairs cognitive performance and sleepiness above the effects of time of night alone. For improved performance, shiftworkers should opt for a snack at night.

LanguageEnglish
Pages1691-1713
Number of pages23
JournalChronobiology International
Volume36
Issue number12
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 10 Oct 2019

Keywords

  • Shiftwork
  • chrono-nutrition
  • cognitive performance
  • driving
  • meal timing

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Physiology
  • Physiology (medical)

Cite this

Gupta, C. C., Centofanti, S., Dorrian, J., Coates, A., Stepien, J. M., Kennaway, D., ... Banks, S. (2019). Altering meal timing to improve cognitive performance during simulated nightshifts. Chronobiology International, 36(12), 1691-1713. https://doi.org/10.1080/07420528.2019.1676256
Gupta, Charlotte C. ; Centofanti, Stephanie ; Dorrian, Jillian ; Coates, Alison ; Stepien, Jacqueline M. ; Kennaway, David ; Wittert, Gary ; Heilbronn, Leonie ; Catcheside, Peter ; Noakes, Manny ; Coro, Daniel ; Chandrakumar, Dilushi ; Banks, Siobhan. / Altering meal timing to improve cognitive performance during simulated nightshifts. In: Chronobiology International. 2019 ; Vol. 36, No. 12. pp. 1691-1713.
@article{2eec3b684d4a4bd582cd118867c2c6d9,
title = "Altering meal timing to improve cognitive performance during simulated nightshifts",
abstract = "Altering meal timing could improve cognition, alertness, and thus safety during the nightshift. This study investigated the differential impact of consuming a meal, snack, or not eating during the nightshift on cognitive performance (ANZCTR12615001107516). 39 healthy participants (59{\%} male, age mean±SD: 24.5 ± 5.0y) completed a 7-day laboratory study and underwent four simulated nightshifts. Participants were randomly allocated to: Meal at Night (MN; n= 12), Snack at Night (SN; n = 13) or No Eating at Night (NE; n = 14). At 00:30 h, MN consumed a meal and SN consumed a snack (30{\%} and 10{\%} of 24 h energy intake respectively). NE did not eat during the nightshift. Macronutrient intake was constant across conditions. At 20:00 h, 22:30 h, 01:30 h, and 04:00 h, participants completed the 3-min Psychomotor Vigilance Task (PVT-B), 40-min driving simulator, post-drive PVT-B, subjective sleepiness scale, 2-choice Reaction Time task, and Running Memory task. Objective sleep was recorded for each of the day sleeps using Actigraphy and for the third day sleep, Polysomnography was used. Performance was compared between conditions using mixed model analyses. Significant two-way interactions were found. At 04:00 h, SN displayed increased time spent in the safe zone (p < .001; percentage of time spent within 10 km/h of the speed limit and 0.8 m of lane center), and decreases in speed variability (p < .001), lane variability (p < .001), post-drive PVT-B lapses (defined as RT > 355 ms; p < .001), and reaction time on the 2-choice reaction time task (p < .001) and running memory task (p < .001) compared to MN and NE. MN reported greater subjective sleepiness at 04:00 h (p < .001) compared to SN and NE. There was no difference in objective sleep between eating conditions. Eating a large meal during the nightshift impairs cognitive performance and sleepiness above the effects of time of night alone. For improved performance, shiftworkers should opt for a snack at night.",
keywords = "Shiftwork, chrono-nutrition, cognitive performance, driving, meal timing",
author = "Gupta, {Charlotte C.} and Stephanie Centofanti and Jillian Dorrian and Alison Coates and Stepien, {Jacqueline M.} and David Kennaway and Gary Wittert and Leonie Heilbronn and Peter Catcheside and Manny Noakes and Daniel Coro and Dilushi Chandrakumar and Siobhan Banks",
year = "2019",
month = "10",
day = "10",
doi = "10.1080/07420528.2019.1676256",
language = "English",
volume = "36",
pages = "1691--1713",
journal = "Chronobiology International",
issn = "0742-0528",
publisher = "Marcel Dekker Inc.",
number = "12",

}

Gupta, CC, Centofanti, S, Dorrian, J, Coates, A, Stepien, JM, Kennaway, D, Wittert, G, Heilbronn, L, Catcheside, P, Noakes, M, Coro, D, Chandrakumar, D & Banks, S 2019, 'Altering meal timing to improve cognitive performance during simulated nightshifts', Chronobiology International, vol. 36, no. 12, pp. 1691-1713. https://doi.org/10.1080/07420528.2019.1676256

Altering meal timing to improve cognitive performance during simulated nightshifts. / Gupta, Charlotte C.; Centofanti, Stephanie; Dorrian, Jillian; Coates, Alison; Stepien, Jacqueline M.; Kennaway, David; Wittert, Gary; Heilbronn, Leonie; Catcheside, Peter; Noakes, Manny; Coro, Daniel; Chandrakumar, Dilushi; Banks, Siobhan.

In: Chronobiology International, Vol. 36, No. 12, 10.10.2019, p. 1691-1713.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

TY - JOUR

T1 - Altering meal timing to improve cognitive performance during simulated nightshifts

AU - Gupta, Charlotte C.

AU - Centofanti, Stephanie

AU - Dorrian, Jillian

AU - Coates, Alison

AU - Stepien, Jacqueline M.

AU - Kennaway, David

AU - Wittert, Gary

AU - Heilbronn, Leonie

AU - Catcheside, Peter

AU - Noakes, Manny

AU - Coro, Daniel

AU - Chandrakumar, Dilushi

AU - Banks, Siobhan

PY - 2019/10/10

Y1 - 2019/10/10

N2 - Altering meal timing could improve cognition, alertness, and thus safety during the nightshift. This study investigated the differential impact of consuming a meal, snack, or not eating during the nightshift on cognitive performance (ANZCTR12615001107516). 39 healthy participants (59% male, age mean±SD: 24.5 ± 5.0y) completed a 7-day laboratory study and underwent four simulated nightshifts. Participants were randomly allocated to: Meal at Night (MN; n= 12), Snack at Night (SN; n = 13) or No Eating at Night (NE; n = 14). At 00:30 h, MN consumed a meal and SN consumed a snack (30% and 10% of 24 h energy intake respectively). NE did not eat during the nightshift. Macronutrient intake was constant across conditions. At 20:00 h, 22:30 h, 01:30 h, and 04:00 h, participants completed the 3-min Psychomotor Vigilance Task (PVT-B), 40-min driving simulator, post-drive PVT-B, subjective sleepiness scale, 2-choice Reaction Time task, and Running Memory task. Objective sleep was recorded for each of the day sleeps using Actigraphy and for the third day sleep, Polysomnography was used. Performance was compared between conditions using mixed model analyses. Significant two-way interactions were found. At 04:00 h, SN displayed increased time spent in the safe zone (p < .001; percentage of time spent within 10 km/h of the speed limit and 0.8 m of lane center), and decreases in speed variability (p < .001), lane variability (p < .001), post-drive PVT-B lapses (defined as RT > 355 ms; p < .001), and reaction time on the 2-choice reaction time task (p < .001) and running memory task (p < .001) compared to MN and NE. MN reported greater subjective sleepiness at 04:00 h (p < .001) compared to SN and NE. There was no difference in objective sleep between eating conditions. Eating a large meal during the nightshift impairs cognitive performance and sleepiness above the effects of time of night alone. For improved performance, shiftworkers should opt for a snack at night.

AB - Altering meal timing could improve cognition, alertness, and thus safety during the nightshift. This study investigated the differential impact of consuming a meal, snack, or not eating during the nightshift on cognitive performance (ANZCTR12615001107516). 39 healthy participants (59% male, age mean±SD: 24.5 ± 5.0y) completed a 7-day laboratory study and underwent four simulated nightshifts. Participants were randomly allocated to: Meal at Night (MN; n= 12), Snack at Night (SN; n = 13) or No Eating at Night (NE; n = 14). At 00:30 h, MN consumed a meal and SN consumed a snack (30% and 10% of 24 h energy intake respectively). NE did not eat during the nightshift. Macronutrient intake was constant across conditions. At 20:00 h, 22:30 h, 01:30 h, and 04:00 h, participants completed the 3-min Psychomotor Vigilance Task (PVT-B), 40-min driving simulator, post-drive PVT-B, subjective sleepiness scale, 2-choice Reaction Time task, and Running Memory task. Objective sleep was recorded for each of the day sleeps using Actigraphy and for the third day sleep, Polysomnography was used. Performance was compared between conditions using mixed model analyses. Significant two-way interactions were found. At 04:00 h, SN displayed increased time spent in the safe zone (p < .001; percentage of time spent within 10 km/h of the speed limit and 0.8 m of lane center), and decreases in speed variability (p < .001), lane variability (p < .001), post-drive PVT-B lapses (defined as RT > 355 ms; p < .001), and reaction time on the 2-choice reaction time task (p < .001) and running memory task (p < .001) compared to MN and NE. MN reported greater subjective sleepiness at 04:00 h (p < .001) compared to SN and NE. There was no difference in objective sleep between eating conditions. Eating a large meal during the nightshift impairs cognitive performance and sleepiness above the effects of time of night alone. For improved performance, shiftworkers should opt for a snack at night.

KW - Shiftwork

KW - chrono-nutrition

KW - cognitive performance

KW - driving

KW - meal timing

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=85074507246&partnerID=8YFLogxK

U2 - 10.1080/07420528.2019.1676256

DO - 10.1080/07420528.2019.1676256

M3 - Article

VL - 36

SP - 1691

EP - 1713

JO - Chronobiology International

T2 - Chronobiology International

JF - Chronobiology International

SN - 0742-0528

IS - 12

ER -

Gupta CC, Centofanti S, Dorrian J, Coates A, Stepien JM, Kennaway D et al. Altering meal timing to improve cognitive performance during simulated nightshifts. Chronobiology International. 2019 Oct 10;36(12):1691-1713. https://doi.org/10.1080/07420528.2019.1676256